Windows 7 Ultimate Blue Screen of Death

February 2nd, 2011

This happens almost every time I install updates and reboot.
It gets stuck for a while at shut down, then burps a blue screen and restarts right away.

Once booted you have a nice welcome popup titled “Windows has recovered from an unexpected shutdown”:

Windows can check online for a solution to the problem.

Problem signature:
Problem Event Name: BlueScreen
OS Version: 6.1.7600.2.0.0.256.1
Locale ID: 1033

Additional information about the problem:
BCCode: 9f
BCP1: 0000000000000003
BCP2: FFFFFA800926B440
BCP3: FFFFF80004117518
BCP4: FFFFFA800ABF2010
OS Version: 6_1_7600
Service Pack: 0_0
Product: 256_1

Files that help describe the problem:
C:\Windows\Minidump\020211-17019-01.dmp
C:\Users\myself\AppData\Local\Temp\WER-87812-0.sysdata.xml

Read our privacy statement online:

http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=104288&clcid=0×0409

If the online privacy statement is not available, please read our privacy statement offline:
C:\Windows\system32\en-US\erofflps.txt

If you hit the “Check for solution” button it closes the popup and that’s all.
Whatever happened to the result?
Were those two diagnostic files (the .dmp and .cml) sent to MSFT?
And how come the .xml file gets deleted after being sent?
Maybe I want to keep a trace of it.

Here’s the a copy of the “Offline Privacy Statement” located in C:\Windows\system32\en-US\erofflps.txt for future reference.

Windows 7 Offline Privacy Statement for the Microsoft Error Reporting Service

For the most up-to-date privacy information, see the online Windows 7 Privacy Statement at:

http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=104288

WHAT THIS FEATURE DOES

The Microsoft Error Reporting Service helps Microsoft and Microsoft partners diagnose problems in the software you use and provide solutions. Not all problems have solutions, but when solutions are available, they are offered as steps to solve a problem you’ve reported or as updates to install. To help prevent problems and make software more reliable, some solutions are also included in service packs and future versions of the software.

The Microsoft Error Reporting Service also provides Setup Repair, an error reporting service that may run during Windows setup if a problem occurs.

INFORMATION COLLECTED, PROCESSED, OR TRANSMITTED

Many Microsoft software programs, including Windows 7, are designed to work with the reporting service. If a problem occurs in one of these software programs, you might be asked if you want to report it. If you host virtual machines using a Windows operating system, reports generated by the Windows operating system for the Microsoft Error Reporting Service might include information about virtual machines.

The reporting service collects information that is useful for diagnosing and solving the problem that has occurred, such as:

* Where the problem happened in the software or hardware
* The type or severity of the problem
* Files that help describe the problem
* Basic software and hardware information
* Possible software performance and compatibility problems

These reports might unintentionally contain personal information. For example, a report that contains a snapshot of computer memory might include your name, part of a document you were working on, or data that you recently submitted to a website. If a report is likely to contain this type of information, Windows will ask if you want to send this information, even if you have enabled automatic reporting through the “Recommended settings” option in setup, or Control Panel. This gives you the opportunity to review the report before sending it to Microsoft. Reports including files and data might be stored on your computer until you have an opportunity to review and send them, or after they have been sent.

If an error report contains personal information, Microsoft does not use the information to identify you or contact you. In addition, if you enable automatic reporting through the “Recommended settings” option in setup, or in Control Panel, the reporting service will send basic information about where problems occur automatically, but these reports will not have the detail described above.

After you send a report, the reporting service might ask you for more information about the error you experienced. If you choose to provide your phone number or e-mail address in this information, your error report will be personally identifiable. Microsoft might contact you to request additional information to help solve the problem you reported.

The Microsoft Error Reporting Service generates a globally unique identifier (GUID) that is stored on your computer and sent with error reports to uniquely identify your computer. The GUID is a randomly generated number; it does not contain any personal information and is not used to identify you. We use the GUID to distinguish how widespread the feedback we receive is and how to prioritize it. For example, the GUID allows Microsoft to distinguish between one customer experiencing a problem one hundred times and one hundred customers experiencing the same problem once.

USE OF INFORMATION

Microsoft uses information about errors and problems to improve Microsoft products and services as well as third-party software and hardware designed for use with these products and services. Microsoft employees, contractors, vendors, and partners might be provided access to information collected by the reporting services. However, they will use the information only to repair or improve Microsoft products and services and third-party software and hardware designed for use with Microsoft products and services.

Microsoft might share aggregate information about errors and problems. Microsoft uses aggregate information for statistical analysis. Aggregate information does not contain specific information from individual reports, nor does it include any personal or confidential information that might have been collected from a report.

Except as described in this statement, personal information you provide will not be transferred to third parties without your consent. We occasionally hire other companies to provide limited services on our behalf, such as performing statistical analysis. We will only provide those companies the personal information they need to deliver the service, and they are prohibited from using that information for any other purpose.

Microsoft may access or disclose information about you, including the content of your communications, in order to: (a) comply with the law or respond to lawful requests or legal process; (b) protect the rights or property of Microsoft or our customers, including the enforcement of our agreements or policies governing your use of the software; or (c) act on a good faith belief that such access or disclosure is necessary to protect the personal safety of Microsoft employees, customers, or the public.

Information collected by or sent to Microsoft by Windows 7 may be stored and processed in the United States or any other country in which Microsoft or its affiliates, subsidiaries, or service providers maintain facilities. Microsoft abides by the safe harbor framework as set forth by the U.S. Department of Commerce regarding the collection, use, and retention of data from the European Union.

CHOICE AND CONTROL

If you choose the recommended settings during Windows 7 setup, basic information about errors will be sent automatically to Microsoft. If a more detailed error report is required, you will be prompted to review it before it is sent. You can change this setting at any time by going to Action Center in Control Panel.

SECURITY PRACTICES

Microsoft is committed to helping protect the security of your information. We use a variety of security technologies and procedures to help protect your information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure. For example, we store the information you provide on computer systems with limited access, which are located in controlled facilities.

FOR MORE INFORMATION

If you have questions about this privacy statement, please contact us by submitting your questions online to Privacy Feedback at:

http://go.microsoft.com/?LinkID=9634754

Windows 7 Offline Privacy Statement for the Microsoft Error Reporting Service
c/o Microsoft Privacy Response Center
Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, Washington 98052 USA

Back in December 6th, here is another BSOD I had (hum, probably the machine was not rebooted for 2 months, which is not a biggie in the Linux world)

Problem signature:
Problem Event Name: BlueScreen
OS Version: 6.1.7600.2.0.0.256.1
Locale ID: 1033

Additional information about the problem:
BCCode: 1000009f
BCP1: 0000000000000004
BCP2: 0000000000000258
BCP3: FFFFFA8009147B60
BCP4: FFFFF80004111510
OS Version: 6_1_7600
Service Pack: 0_0
Product: 256_1

Files that help describe the problem:
C:\Windows\Minidump\120610-10654-01.dmp
C:\Users\myself\AppData\Local\Temp\WER-75520-0.sysdata.xml

Read our privacy statement online:

http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=104288&clcid=0×0409

If the online privacy statement is not available, please read our privacy statement offline:
C:\Windows\system32\en-US\erofflps.txt

Digging further I unearthed another record of BSOD on a Vista machine back in September 9th 2010:

Problem signature:
Problem Event Name: BlueScreen
OS Version: 6.0.6001.2.1.0.768.3
Locale ID: 1033

Additional information about the problem:
BCCode: a
BCP1: 0000000000000008
BCP2: 0000000000000002
BCP3: 0000000000000000
BCP4: FFFFF80001E0C1CA
OS Version: 6_0_6001
Service Pack: 1_0
Product: 768_1

Files that help describe the problem:
C:\Windows\Minidump\Mini090910-01.dmp
C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\Temp\WER-139765-0.sysdata.xml
C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\Temp\WERBD0C.tmp.version.txt

Read our privacy statement:

http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=50163&clcid=0×0409

BSODs are still alive and kicking in 2011.

I wondered if that’s the problem HAL had back in 2001 on its way to Jupiter.

Ubuntu basic command line package administration Cheat Sheet

January 2nd, 2011

Command line package administration can be powerful but it’s not obvious at first glance.
The commands to list, install, upgrade and uninstall are not using the same shell command.
Sometime you need apt-get, sometimes apt-cache, sometimes dpkg,… not very consistent.

Some commands are also confusing, for instance:

bash# apt-get install phpmyadmin

will install only the phpmyadmin package.
However this one:

bash# apt-get upgrade phpmyadmin

or this one:

bash# apt-get upgrade

are exactly the same and will attempt to upgrade ALL your packages, and not a specific one.

apt-get upgrade should probably give an error that is has an extra argument instead, otherwise you think you’re just upgrading one package.

Worse: you need to reuse the apt-get “install” command to upgrade a specific package, which makes the “upgrade” keyword confusing.

This cheat sheet is also valid for Debian systems as Ubuntu is based on Debian.
It is presented in a chronological manner for the lifetime of a package: searching, getting more details, installing, upgrading, removing.

Here is a quick cheat sheet summary:

1/ Package Management Cheat Sheet

sudo apt-get update # Update the local repository to have all the latest available packages
apt-cache search phpmyadmin # Search by keyword for a package
apt-cache show phpmyadmin # Get more information about a specific package before installing it
sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin # Install a specific package
dpkg -L phpmyadmin # List the files installed by a specific package
dpkg -l # List ALL installed packages
sudo apt-get install # Upgrade a package to the latest available version
apt-get upgrade # Upgrade ALL installed packages
sudo apt-get remove phpmyadmin # Uninstall, Remove, Delete, Suppress, Deinstall a specific package

And here are what the commands return in detail:


2/ Update the local repository to have all the latest available packages

bash# sudo apt-get update
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick Release.gpg
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main Translation-en
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main Translation-en_US
Get:1 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security Release.gpg [198B]
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-security/main Translation-en
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-security/main Translation-en_US
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/multiverse Translation-en
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/multiverse Translation-en_US
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/restricted Translation-en
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/restricted Translation-en_US
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/universe Translation-en
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/universe Translation-en_US
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates Release.gpg [198B]
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/main Translation-en
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-security/multiverse Translation-en
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-security/multiverse Translation-en_US
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-security/restricted Translation-en
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-security/restricted Translation-en_US
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-security/universe Translation-en
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-security/universe Translation-en_US
Get:3 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security Release [31.4kB]
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/main Translation-en_US
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/multiverse Translation-en
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/multiverse Translation-en_US
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/restricted Translation-en
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/restricted Translation-en_US
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/universe Translation-en
Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/universe Translation-en_US
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick Release
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates Release [31.4kB]
Get:5 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security/main Sources [23.7kB]
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick/main Sources
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick/restricted Sources
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick/universe Sources
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick/multiverse Sources
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick/main amd64 Packages
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick/restricted amd64 Packages
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick/universe amd64 Packages
Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick/multiverse amd64 Packages
Get:6 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates/main Sources [80.7kB]
Get:7 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security/restricted Sources [14B]
Get:8 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security/universe Sources [9,802B]
Get:9 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security/multiverse Sources [649B]
Get:10 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security/main amd64 Packages [78.9kB]
Get:11 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates/restricted Sources [778B]
Get:12 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates/universe Sources [29.5kB]
Get:13 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security/restricted amd64 Packages [14B]
Get:14 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security/universe amd64 Packages [39.2kB]
Get:15 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates/multiverse Sources [1,504B]
Get:16 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates/main amd64 Packages [217kB]
Get:17 http://security.ubuntu.com maverick-security/multiverse amd64 Packages [1,531B]
Get:18 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates/restricted amd64 Packages [1,802B]
Get:19 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates/universe amd64 Packages [88.7kB]
Get:20 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com maverick-updates/multiverse amd64 Packages [2,700B]
Fetched 640kB in 3s (180kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
bash #


3/ Search by keyword for a package

bash# apt-cache search phpmyadmin
dtc-toaster - web control panel for admin and accounting hosting services (metapackage)
phpmyadmin - MySQL web administration tool
bash#


4/ Get more information about a specific package before installing it

bash# apt-cache show phpmyadmin
Package: phpmyadmin
Priority: extra
Section: universe/web
Installed-Size: 17040
Maintainer: Ubuntu Developers <ubuntu-devel-discuss@lists.ubuntu.com>
Original-Maintainer: Thijs Kinkhorst <thijs@debian.org>
Architecture: all
Version: 4:3.3.2-1
Depends: libapache2-mod-php5 | php5-cgi | php5, php5-mysql | php5-mysqli, php5-mcrypt, perl, debconf (>= 0.5) | debconf-2.0, dbconfig-common, ucf (>= 0.28), libjs-mootools (>= 1.2.4.0~debian1-1)
Recommends: apache2 | lighttpd | httpd, php5-gd, mysql-client
Suggests: mysql-server
Filename: pool/universe/p/phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin_3.3.2-1_all.deb
Size: 4284776
MD5sum: 01a18106b25251d7414e64274cf13c28
SHA1: 5133de151595bded0a6a3c0201665999ff8ea57f
SHA256: ba89c9cd6620ec23f637f75172805a600083f0101245edf2a37c3d3a33743e46
Description: MySQL web administration tool
 This package allows administering of MySQL with a web interface.
 .
 It allows administrators to:
  - browse through databases and tables;
  - create, copy, rename, alter and drop databases;
  - create, copy, rename, alter and drop tables;
  - perform table maintenance;
  - add, edit and drop fields;
  - execute any SQL-statement, even multiple queries;
  - create, alter and drop indexes;
  - load text files into tables;
  - create and read dumps of tables or databases;
  - export data to SQL, CSV, XML, Word, Excel, PDF and LaTeX formats;
  - administer multiple servers;
  - manage MySQL users and privileges;
  - check server settings and runtime information with configuration hints;
  - check referential integrity in MyISAM tables;
  - create complex queries using Query-by-example (QBE), automatically
    connecting required tables;
  - create PDF graphics of database layout;
  - search globally in a database or a subset of it;
  - transform stored data into any format using a set of predefined
    functions, such as displaying BLOB-data as image or download-link;
  - manage InnoDB tables and foreign keys;
 and is fully internationalized and localized in dozens of languages.
Homepage: http://www.phpmyadmin.net/
Bugs: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+filebug
Origin: Ubuntu
bash#


5/ Install a specific package

The following command will take all dependencies into account and install the required packages for this specific package to work.

bash# sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  dbconfig-common javascript-common libapache2-mod-php5 libgd2-xpm libjs-mootools libmcrypt4 libt1-5
  php5-cli php5-common php5-gd php5-mcrypt php5-mysql wwwconfig-common
Suggested packages:
  php-pear libgd-tools libmcrypt-dev mcrypt php5-suhosin postgresql-client apache apache-ssl
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  dbconfig-common javascript-common libgd2-xpm libjs-mootools libmcrypt4 libt1-5 php5-gd php5-mcrypt phpmyadmin wwwconfig-common
The following packages will be upgraded:
  libapache2-mod-php5 php5-cli php5-common php5-mysql
4 upgraded, 10 newly installed, 0 to remove and 54 not upgraded.
Need to get 12.4MB of archives.
After this operation, 22.6MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y
Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main dbconfig-common all 1.8.46 [474kB]
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/universe wwwconfig-common all 0.2.1 [22.8kB]
Get:3 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/universe javascript-common all 7 [3,854B]
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/main php5-cli amd64 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3 [3,018kB]
Get:5 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/main php5-mysql amd64 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3 [75.4kB]
Get:6 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/main libapache2-mod-php5 amd64 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3 [3,106kB]
Get:7 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/main php5-common amd64 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3 [565kB]
Get:8 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main libgd2-xpm amd64 2.0.36~rc1~dfsg-3.2ubuntu1 [215kB]
Get:9 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/universe libjs-mootools all 1.2.4.0~debian1-1 [248kB]
Get:10 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/universe libmcrypt4 amd64 2.5.8-3.1 [87.6kB]
Get:11 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main libt1-5 amd64 5.1.2-3build1 [172kB]
Get:12 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/main php5-gd amd64 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3 [38.5kB]
Get:13 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/universe php5-mcrypt amd64 5.3.3-0ubuntu2 [18.6kB]
Get:14 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates/universe phpmyadmin all 4:3.3.7-3build0.10.10.1 [4,342kB]
Fetched 12.4MB in 35s (351kB/s)
Preconfiguring packages ...
Selecting previously deselected package dbconfig-common.
(Reading database ... 63681 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking dbconfig-common (from .../dbconfig-common_1.8.46_all.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package wwwconfig-common.
Unpacking wwwconfig-common (from .../wwwconfig-common_0.2.1_all.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package javascript-common.
Unpacking javascript-common (from .../javascript-common_7_all.deb) ...
Preparing to replace php5-cli 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.1 (using .../php5-cli_5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3_amd64.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement php5-cli ...
Preparing to replace php5-mysql 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.1 (using .../php5-mysql_5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3_amd64.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement php5-mysql ...
Preparing to replace libapache2-mod-php5 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.1 (using .../libapache2-mod-php5_5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3_amd64.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement libapache2-mod-php5 ...
Preparing to replace php5-common 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.1 (using .../php5-common_5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3_amd64.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement php5-common ...
Selecting previously deselected package libgd2-xpm.
Unpacking libgd2-xpm (from .../libgd2-xpm_2.0.36~rc1~dfsg-3.2ubuntu1_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package libjs-mootools.
Unpacking libjs-mootools (from .../libjs-mootools_1.2.4.0~debian1-1_all.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package libmcrypt4.
Unpacking libmcrypt4 (from .../libmcrypt4_2.5.8-3.1_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package libt1-5.
Unpacking libt1-5 (from .../libt1-5_5.1.2-3build1_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package php5-gd.
Unpacking php5-gd (from .../php5-gd_5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package php5-mcrypt.
Unpacking php5-mcrypt (from .../php5-mcrypt_5.3.3-0ubuntu2_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package phpmyadmin.
Unpacking phpmyadmin (from .../phpmyadmin_4%3a3.3.7-3build0.10.10.1_all.deb) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Setting up dbconfig-common (1.8.46) ...

Creating config file /etc/dbconfig-common/config with new version
Setting up wwwconfig-common (0.2.1) ...
Setting up javascript-common (7) ...
Setting up php5-common (5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3) ...
Setting up php5-cli (5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3) ...
Setting up libapache2-mod-php5 (5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3) ...
 * Reloading web server config apache2
Setting up php5-mysql (5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3) ...
Setting up libgd2-xpm (2.0.36~rc1~dfsg-3.2ubuntu1) ...
Setting up libjs-mootools (1.2.4.0~debian1-1) ...
Setting up libmcrypt4 (2.5.8-3.1) ...
Setting up libt1-5 (5.1.2-3build1) ...
Setting up php5-gd (5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3) ...
Setting up php5-mcrypt (5.3.3-0ubuntu2) ...
Setting up phpmyadmin (4:3.3.7-3build0.10.10.1) ...
dbconfig-common: writing config to /etc/dbconfig-common/phpmyadmin.conf

Creating config file /etc/dbconfig-common/phpmyadmin.conf with new version

Creating config file /etc/phpmyadmin/config-db.php with new version
granting access to database phpmyadmin for phpmyadmin@localhost: failed.
error encountered creating user:
mysql said: ERROR 1044 (42000) at line 1: Access denied for user 'phpmyadmin'@'localhost' to database 'phpmyadmin'
dbconfig-common: phpmyadmin configure: ignoring errors from here forwards
populating database via sql...  done.
dbconfig-common: flushing administrative password
Processing triggers for libc-bin ...
ldconfig deferred processing now taking place
bash#


6/ List the files installed by a specific package

bash# dpkg -L phpmyadmin
/.
/etc
/etc/phpmyadmin
/etc/phpmyadmin/apache.conf
/etc/phpmyadmin/config.footer.inc.php
/etc/phpmyadmin/config.header.inc.php
/etc/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php
/etc/phpmyadmin/lighttpd.conf
/etc/phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin.service
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/phpmyadmin
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/browse_foreigners.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/bs_change_mime_type.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/bs_disp_as_mime_type.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/bs_play_media.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/calendar.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/changelog.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/chk_rel.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/config.sample.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_create.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_datadict.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_export.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_import.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_operations.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_printview.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_qbe.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_search.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_sql.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_structure.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/db_tracking.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/export.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/import.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/import_status.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/index.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/license.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/main.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/navigation.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pdf_pages.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pdf_schema.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/phpinfo.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin.css.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd_common.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd_display_field.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd_general.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd_help.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd_pdf.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd_relation_new.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd_relation_upd.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd_save_pos.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/querywindow.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/server_binlog.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/server_collations.php
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/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/export/texytext.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/export/ods.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/export/htmlword.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/export/codegen.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/export/mediawiki.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/display_create_database.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/db_structure.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/sqlparser.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/parse_analyze.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/select_server.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/Theme_Manager.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/logging.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tbl_links.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/db_info.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/file_listing.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/StorageEngine.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/sqlvalidator.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/cleanup.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/plugin_interface.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/zip.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/Theme.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/check_user_privileges.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/Config.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/Partition.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/http.auth.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/cookie.auth.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/swekey
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/swekey/musbe-ca.crt
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/swekey/swekey.auth.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/swekey/swekey.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/swekey/authentication.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/config.auth.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/auth/signon.auth.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/text_plain__link.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/README
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/TEMPLATE
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/text_plain__imagelink.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/text_plain__longToIpv4.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/text_plain__formatted.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/TEMPLATE_MIMETYPE
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/text_plain__dateformat.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/template_generator.sh
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/application_octetstream__hex.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/text_plain__sql.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/generator.sh
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/image_jpeg__inline.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/application_octetstream__download.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/image_jpeg__link.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/global.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/text_plain__substr.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/text_plain__external.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/image_png__inline.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations/template_generator_mimetype.sh
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavusans.ctg.z
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavuserif.z
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavuserif-bold.ctg.z
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavusans.z
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavuserif.ctg.z
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavuserif.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavusans.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavusans-bold.z
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavuserifb.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavuserif-bold.z
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavusans-bold.ctg.z
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/font/dejavusansb.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/unicode_data.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tcpdf/tcpdf.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/string_type_ctype.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/string_native.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/header_scripts.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tbl_triggers.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/display_create_table.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/opendocument.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/replication.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/display_export.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/grab_globals.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/innodb.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/berkeleydb.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/mrg_myisam.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/merge.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/bdb.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/myisam.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/innobase.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/memory.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/binlog.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/pbxt.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/engines/ndbcluster.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/charset_conversion.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/header_http.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/header_meta_style.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/Index.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/display_tbl_links.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/List.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/display_import.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/transformations.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/string_type_native.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/header.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/database_interface.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/dbg
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/dbg/setup.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/db_links.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/header_printview.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/blobstreaming.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/List_Database.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/ob.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/common.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/db_events.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tbl_common.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/iconv_wrapper.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/mult_submits.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/tbl_replace_fields.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/session.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/sqlparser.data.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/bookmark.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/Message.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/README
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/upload
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/upload/apc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/upload/uploadprogress.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/upload/noplugin.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/docsql.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/xls.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/sql.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/csv.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/xlsx.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/xml.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/ods.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/import/ldi.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/.htaccess
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/server_links.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/mysql_charsets.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/relation.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/display_import_ajax.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/js_escape.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/relation_cleanup.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/Table.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/Tracker.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/display_change_password.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/db_common.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/db_table_exists.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/libraries/error.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/style1.css
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/7.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/4.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/FieldKey_small.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/left_panel_tab.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/Field_small_char.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/8.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/small_tab.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/5.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/6.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/Header.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/2.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/left_panel_butt.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/3.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/Header_Linked.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/top_panel.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/Field_small_date.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/1.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/Field_small.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/styles/default/images/Field_small_int.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/scripts
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/scripts/iecanvas.js
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/scripts/move.js
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/scripts/ajax.js
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/grid.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/downarrow1.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/exec.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/relation.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/display_field.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/favicon.ico
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/def.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/bottom.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/downarrow2.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/2leftarrow.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/pdf.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/save.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/bord.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/help.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/rightarrow1.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/reload.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/2rightarrow_m.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/2rightarrow.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/exec_small.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/uparrow2_m.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/table.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/downarrow2_m.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/ang_direct.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/rightarrow2.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/help_relation.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/resize.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/pmd/images/2leftarrow_m.png
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/themes
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/themes/original
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/themes/original/screen.png
...
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/themes/darkblue_orange
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/themes/darkblue_orange/screen.png
...
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/FormDisplay.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/common.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/Form.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/form_processing.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/config_info.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/FormDisplay.tpl.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/validate.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/index.lib.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/ConfigFile.class.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/forms.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/lib/.htaccess
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/scripts.js
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/frames
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/frames/servers.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/frames/menu.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/frames/index.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/frames/form.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/frames/config.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/index.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/styles.css
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/config.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/setup/validate.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/config.footer.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/config.header.inc.php
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php
/usr/share/dbconfig-common
/usr/share/dbconfig-common/data
/usr/share/dbconfig-common/data/phpmyadmin
/usr/share/dbconfig-common/data/phpmyadmin/install
/usr/share/dbconfig-common/data/phpmyadmin/install/mysql
/usr/share/dbconfig-common/data/phpmyadmin/upgrade
/usr/share/dbconfig-common/data/phpmyadmin/upgrade/mysql
/usr/share/dbconfig-common/data/phpmyadmin/upgrade/mysql/4:3.3.2-2
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/NEWS.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/changelog.gz
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/Documentation.html
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/README.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/translators.html
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/docs.css
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/TODO.Debian
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/copyright
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/examples
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/examples/config.sample.inc.php
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/examples/signon.php
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/examples/config.manyhosts.inc.php
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/examples/create_tables.sql.gz
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/examples/upgrade_tables_mysql_4_1_2+.sql.gz
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/phpmyadmin/Documentation.txt.gz
/usr/share/doc-base
/usr/share/doc-base/phpmyadmin
/usr/share/man
/usr/share/man/man8
/usr/share/man/man8/pma-secure.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/pma-configure.8.gz
/usr/sbin
/usr/sbin/pma-configure
/usr/sbin/pma-secure
/var
/var/lib
/var/lib/phpmyadmin
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/docs.css
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/js/mootools.js
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/js/mootools-more.js
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/translators.html
/usr/share/phpmyadmin/Documentation.html
bash#


7/ List ALL installed packages

bash# dpkg -l
Desired=Unknown/Install/Remove/Purge/Hold
| Status=Not/Inst/Conf-files/Unpacked/halF-conf/Half-inst/trig-aWait/Trig-pend
|/ Err?=(none)/Reinst-required (Status,Err: uppercase=bad)
||/ Name                                       Version                                    Description
+++-==========================================-==========================================-====================================================================================================
ii  adduser                                    3.112ubuntu1                               add and remove users and groups
ii  apache2                                    2.2.16-1ubuntu3                            Apache HTTP Server metapackage
ii  apache2-mpm-prefork                        2.2.16-1ubuntu3                            Apache HTTP Server - traditional non-threaded model
ii  apache2-utils                              2.2.16-1ubuntu3                            utility programs for webservers
ii  apache2.2-bin                              2.2.16-1ubuntu3                            Apache HTTP Server common binary files
ii  apache2.2-common                           2.2.16-1ubuntu3                            Apache HTTP Server common files
ii  apparmor                                   2.5.1-0ubuntu0.10.10.2                     User-space parser utility for AppArmor
ii  apparmor-utils                             2.5.1-0ubuntu0.10.10.2                     Utilities for controlling AppArmor
ii  apt                                        0.8.3ubuntu7                               Advanced front-end for dpkg
ii  apt-transport-https                        0.8.3ubuntu7                               APT https transport
ii  apt-utils                                  0.8.3ubuntu7                               APT utility programs
ii  apt-xapian-index                           0.39ubuntu1                                maintenance and search tools for a Xapian index of Debian packages
ii  aptitude                                   0.6.3-2ubuntu4                             terminal-based package manager (terminal interface only)
ii  apturl                                     0.4.1ubuntu7                               install packages using the apt protocol - GTK+ frontend
ii  apturl-common                              0.4.1ubuntu7                               install packages using the apt protocol - common data
ii  aspell                                     0.60.6-4ubuntu1                            GNU Aspell spell-checker
ii  aspell-en                                  6.0-0-5.1ubuntu3                           English dictionary for GNU Aspell
ii  at                                         3.1.12-1ubuntu2                            Delayed job execution and batch processing
ii  autoconf                                   2.67-2ubuntu1                              automatic configure script builder
ii  automake                                   1:1.11.1-1                                 A tool for generating GNU Standards-compliant Makefiles
ii  autotools-dev                              20100122.1                                 Update infrastructure for config.{guess,sub} files
ii  base-files                                 5.0.0ubuntu23                              Debian base system miscellaneous files
ii  base-passwd                                3.5.22                                     Debian base system master password and group files
ii  bash                                       4.1-2ubuntu4                               The GNU Bourne Again SHell
ii  bash-completion                            1:1.2-2ubuntu1                             programmable completion for the bash shell
ii  bind9-host                                 1:9.7.1.dfsg.P2-2                          Version of 'host' bundled with BIND 9.X
ii  binutils                                   2.20.51.20100908-0ubuntu2                  The GNU assembler, linker and binary utilities
ii  bsdmainutils                               8.0.11ubuntu1                              collection of more utilities from FreeBSD
ii  bsdutils                                   1:2.17.2-0ubuntu1                          Basic utilities from 4.4BSD-Lite
ii  busybox-initramfs                          1:1.15.3-1ubuntu5                          Standalone shell setup for initramfs
ii  busybox-static                             1:1.15.3-1ubuntu5                          Standalone rescue shell with tons of builtin utilities
ii  bzip2                                      1.0.5-4ubuntu1                             high-quality block-sorting file compressor - utilities
ii  ca-certificates                            20090814                                   Common CA certificates
ii  ca-certificates-java                       20100412                                   Common CA certificates (JKS keystore)
ii  command-not-found                          0.2.40ubuntu15                             Suggest installation of packages in interactive bash sessions
ii  command-not-found-data                     0.2.40ubuntu15                             Set of data files for command-not-found.
ii  console-setup                              1.34ubuntu15                               console font and keymap setup program
ii  console-terminus                           4.30-2                                     Fixed-width fonts for fast reading on the Linux console
ii  consolekit                                 0.4.1-4ubuntu1                             framework for defining and tracking users, sessions and seats
ii  coreutils                                  8.5-1ubuntu3                               GNU core utilities
ii  cpio                                       2.11-4ubuntu1                              GNU cpio -- a program to manage archives of files
ii  cpp                                        4:4.4.4-1ubuntu2                           The GNU C preprocessor (cpp)
ii  cpp-4.4                                    4.4.4-14ubuntu5                            The GNU C preprocessor
ii  cron                                       3.0pl1-114ubuntu1                          process scheduling daemon
ii  dash                                       0.5.5.1-7ubuntu1                           POSIX-compliant shell
ii  dbconfig-common                            1.8.46                                     common framework for packaging database applications
ii  dbus                                       1.4.0-0ubuntu1.1                           simple interprocess messaging system
ii  dbus-x11                                   1.4.0-0ubuntu1.1                           simple interprocess messaging system (X11 deps)
ii  debconf                                    1.5.32ubuntu3                              Debian configuration management system
ii  debconf-i18n                               1.5.32ubuntu3                              full internationalization support for debconf
ii  debianutils                                3.2.3                                      Miscellaneous utilities specific to Debian
ii  defoma                                     0.11.11ubuntu1                             Debian Font Manager -- automatic font configuration framework
ii  dhcp3-client                               3.1.3-2ubuntu6                             DHCP client
ii  dhcp3-common                               3.1.3-2ubuntu6                             common files used by all the dhcp3* packages
ii  dictionaries-common                        1.5.11ubuntu1                              Common utilities for spelling dictionary tools
ii  diffutils                                  1:3.0-1                                    File comparison utilities
ii  dmidecode                                  2.9-1.2                                    Dump Desktop Management Interface data
ii  dmsetup                                    2:1.02.39-1ubuntu6                         The Linux Kernel Device Mapper userspace library
ii  dnsutils                                   1:9.7.1.dfsg.P2-2                          Clients provided with BIND
ii  docbook-xml                                4.5-7                                      standard XML documentation system for software and systems
ii  dosfstools                                 3.0.9-1                                    utilities for making and checking MS-DOS FAT filesystems
ii  dpkg                                       1.15.8.4ubuntu3                            Debian package management system
ii  e2fslibs                                   1.41.12-1ubuntu2                           ext2/ext3/ext4 file system libraries
ii  e2fsprogs                                  1.41.12-1ubuntu2                           ext2/ext3/ext4 file system utilities
ii  ed                                         1.4-1build1                                The classic UNIX line editor
ii  eject                                      2.1.5+deb1+cvs20081104-7                   ejects CDs and operates CD-Changers under Linux
ii  eterm                                      0.9.5-2ubuntu1                             Enlightened Terminal Emulator
ii  file                                       5.03-5ubuntu1                              Determines file type using "magic" numbers
ii  findutils                                  4.4.2-1ubuntu1                             utilities for finding files--find, xargs
ii  firefox                                    3.6.13+build3+nobinonly-0ubuntu0.10.10.1   safe and easy web browser from Mozilla
ii  firefox-branding                           3.6.13+build3+nobinonly-0ubuntu0.10.10.1   Package that ships the firefox branding
ii  fluxbox                                    1.1.1+git20100807.0cc08f9-1                Highly configurable and low resource X11 Window manager
ii  fontconfig                                 2.8.0-2ubuntu1                             generic font configuration library - support binaries
ii  fontconfig-config                          2.8.0-2ubuntu1                             generic font configuration library - configuration
ii  friendly-recovery                          0.2.10                                     Make recovery more user-friendly
ii  ftp                                        0.17-23                                    The FTP client
ii  fuse-utils                                 2.8.4-1ubuntu1                             Filesystem in USErspace (utilities)
ii  gamin                                      0.1.10-1ubuntu3                            File and directory monitoring system
ii  gcc                                        4:4.4.4-1ubuntu2                           The GNU C compiler
ii  gcc-4.4                                    4.4.4-14ubuntu5                            The GNU C compiler
ii  gcc-4.4-base                               4.4.4-14ubuntu5                            The GNU Compiler Collection (base package)
ii  gcc-4.5-base                               4.5.1-7ubuntu2                             The GNU Compiler Collection (base package)
ii  gconf2                                     2.31.91-0ubuntu3.1                         GNOME configuration database system (support tools)
ii  gconf2-common                              2.31.91-0ubuntu3.1                         GNOME configuration database system (common files)
ii  geoip-database                             1.4.7~beta5+dfsg-1                         IP lookup command line tools that use the GeoIP library (country database)
ii  gettext-base                               0.18.1.1-1ubuntu2                          GNU Internationalization utilities for the base system
ii  ghostscript                                8.71.dfsg.2-0ubuntu7                       The GPL Ghostscript PostScript/PDF interpreter
ii  gir1.0-glib-2.0                            0.9.3-0ubuntu4                             Introspection data for GLib, GObject, Gio and GModule
ii  gksu                                       2.0.2-2ubuntu3                             graphical frontend to su
ii  gnome-icon-theme                           2.31.0-0ubuntu1                            GNOME Desktop icon theme
ii  gnome-keyring                              2.92.92.is.2.31.91-0ubuntu4.1              GNOME keyring services (daemon and tools)
ii  gnome-mime-data                            2.18.0-1                                   base MIME and Application database for GNOME.
ii  gnupg                                      1.4.10-2ubuntu2                            GNU privacy guard - a free PGP replacement
ii  gpgv                                       1.4.10-2ubuntu2                            GNU privacy guard - signature verification tool
ii  grep                                       2.6.3-3                                    GNU grep, egrep and fgrep
ii  groff-base                                 1.20.1-10                                  GNU troff text-formatting system (base system components)
ii  grub-common                                1.98+20100804-5ubuntu3                     GRand Unified Bootloader, version 2 (common files)
ii  grub-pc                                    1.98+20100804-5ubuntu3                     GRand Unified Bootloader, version 2 (PC/BIOS version)
ii  gsfonts                                    1:8.11+urwcyr1.0.7~pre44-4.2ubuntu1        Fonts for the Ghostscript interpreter(s)
ii  gvfs                                       1.6.4-0ubuntu1.1                           userspace virtual filesystem - server
ii  gvfs-backends                              1.6.4-0ubuntu1.1                           userspace virtual filesystem - backends
ii  gzip                                       1.3.12-9ubuntu1.1                          GNU compression utilities
ii  hdparm                                     9.27-2ubuntu2                              tune hard disk parameters for high performance
ii  hicolor-icon-theme                         0.11-1                                     default fallback theme for FreeDesktop.org icon themes
ii  hostname                                   3.04ubuntu1                                utility to set/show the host name or domain name
ii  hunspell-en-ca                             1:3.2.1-2ubuntu1                           English_canadian dictionary for hunspell
ii  hunspell-en-us                             20070829-4ubuntu1                          English_american dictionary for hunspell
ii  icedtea-6-jre-cacao                        6b20-1.9.2-0ubuntu2                        Alternative JVM for OpenJDK, using Cacao
ii  ifupdown                                   0.6.10ubuntu3                              high level tools to configure network interfaces
ii  indicator-application                      0.2.9-0ubuntu1                             Application Indicators
ii  info                                       4.13a.dfsg.1-5ubuntu1                      Standalone GNU Info documentation browser
ii  initramfs-tools                            0.98.1ubuntu6                              tools for generating an initramfs
ii  initramfs-tools-bin                        0.98.1ubuntu6                              binaries used by initramfs-tools
ii  initscripts                                2.87dsf-4ubuntu19                          scripts for initializing and shutting down the system
ii  insserv                                    1.14.0-2                                   Tool to organize boot sequence using LSB init.d script dependencies
ii  install-info                               4.13a.dfsg.1-5ubuntu1                      Manage installed documentation in info format
ii  installation-report                        2.39ubuntu4                                system installation report
ii  iproute                                    20100519-2                                 networking and traffic control tools
ii  iptables                                   1.4.4-2ubuntu3                             administration tools for packet filtering and NAT
ii  iputils-ping                               3:20100418-2ubuntu1                        Tools to test the reachability of network hosts
ii  iputils-tracepath                          3:20100418-2ubuntu1                        Tools to trace the network path to a remote host
ii  irqbalance                                 0.56-0ubuntu2                              Daemon to balance interrupts for SMP systems
ii  iso-codes                                  3.17-1                                     ISO language, territory, currency, script codes and their translations
ii  java-common                                0.38                                       Base of all Java packages
ii  javascript-common                          7                                          Base support for javascript library packages
ii  kbd                                        1.15-1ubuntu3                              Linux console font and keytable utilities
ii  klibc-utils                                1.5.20-1                                   small utilities built with klibc for early boot
ii  language-pack-en                           1:10.10+20100930                           translation updates for language English
ii  language-pack-en-base                      1:10.10+20100930                           translations for language English
ii  language-pack-gnome-en                     1:10.10+20100930                           GNOME translation updates for language English
ii  language-pack-gnome-en-base                1:10.10+20100930                           GNOME translations for language English
ii  language-selector-common                   0.6.6                                      Language selector for Ubuntu Linux
ii  language-support-en                        1:9.10+20090909                            metapackage for English language support
ii  language-support-writing-en                1:10.04+20100311                           Writing aids metapackage for English
ii  laptop-detect                              0.13.7ubuntu2                              attempt to detect a laptop
ii  launchpad-integration                      0.1.38                                     launchpad integration
ii  less                                       436-1                                      pager program similar to more
ii  libaccess-bridge-java                      1.26.2-5                                   Java Access Bridge for GNOME
ii  libaccess-bridge-java-jni                  1.26.2-5                                   Java Access Bridge for GNOME (jni bindings)
ii  libacl1                                    2.2.49-3                                   Access control list shared library
ii  libapache2-mod-php5                        5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3                           server-side, HTML-embedded scripting language (Apache 2 module)
ii  libapparmor-perl                           2.5.1-0ubuntu0.10.10.2                     AppArmor library Perl bindings
ii  libapparmor1                               2.5.1-0ubuntu0.10.10.2                     changehat AppArmor library
ii  libappindicator1                           0.2.9-0ubuntu1                             Application Indicators
ii  libapr1                                    1.4.2-3ubuntu1                             The Apache Portable Runtime Library
ii  libaprutil1                                1.3.9+dfsg-3build1                         The Apache Portable Runtime Utility Library
ii  libaprutil1-dbd-sqlite3                    1.3.9+dfsg-3build1                         The Apache Portable Runtime Utility Library - SQLite3 Driver
ii  libaprutil1-ldap                           1.3.9+dfsg-3build1                         The Apache Portable Runtime Utility Library - LDAP Driver
ii  libarchive1                                2.8.4-1                                    Single library to read/write tar, cpio, pax, zip, iso9660, etc.
ii  libart-2.0-2                               2.3.21-1                                   Library of functions for 2D graphics - runtime files
ii  libasound2                                 1.0.23-1ubuntu2.1                          shared library for ALSA applications
ii  libaspell15                                0.60.6-4ubuntu1                            GNU Aspell spell-checker runtime library
ii  libast2                                    0.7-3                                      the Library of Assorted Spiffy Things
ii  libatasmart4                               0.17+git20100219-2                         ATA S.M.A.R.T. reading and parsing library
ii  libatk1.0-0                                1.32.0-0ubuntu1                            The ATK accessibility toolkit
ii  libatk1.0-data                             1.32.0-0ubuntu1                            Common files for the ATK accessibility toolkit
ii  libatm1                                    1:2.5.1-1.2                                shared library for ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
ii  libattr1                                   1:2.4.44-2                                 Extended attribute shared library
ii  libavahi-client3                           0.6.27-2ubuntu3                            Avahi client library
ii  libavahi-common-data                       0.6.27-2ubuntu3                            Avahi common data files
ii  libavahi-common3                           0.6.27-2ubuntu3                            Avahi common library
ii  libavahi-glib1                             0.6.27-2ubuntu3                            Avahi glib integration library
ii  libbind9-60                                1:9.7.1.dfsg.P2-2                          BIND9 Shared Library used by BIND
ii  libblkid1                                  2.17.2-0ubuntu1                            block device id library
ii  libbluetooth3                              4.69-0ubuntu2                              Library to use the BlueZ Linux Bluetooth stack
ii  libbonobo2-0                               2.32.0-0ubuntu1                            Bonobo CORBA interfaces library
ii  libbonobo2-common                          2.32.0-0ubuntu1                            Bonobo CORBA interfaces library -- support files
ii  libbonoboui2-0                             2.24.3-1ubuntu1                            The Bonobo UI library
ii  libbonoboui2-common                        2.24.3-1ubuntu1                            The Bonobo UI library -- common files
ii  libboost-iostreams1.42.0                   1.42.0-3ubuntu1                            Boost.Iostreams Library
ii  libbsd0                                    0.2.0-1                                    utility functions from BSD systems - shared library
ii  libbz2-1.0                                 1.0.5-4ubuntu1                             high-quality block-sorting file compressor library - runtime
ii  libc-ares2                                 1.7.3-1                                    library for asyncronous name resolves
ii  libc-bin                                   2.12.1-0ubuntu10.1                         Embedded GNU C Library: Binaries
ii  libc-dev-bin                               2.12.1-0ubuntu10.1                         Embedded GNU C Library: Development binaries
ii  libc6                                      2.12.1-0ubuntu10.1                         Embedded GNU C Library: Shared libraries
ii  libc6-dev                                  2.12.1-0ubuntu10.1                         Embedded GNU C Library: Development Libraries and Header Files
ii  libcairo-perl                              1.070-1ubuntu1                             Perl interface to the Cairo graphics library
ii  libcairo2                                  1.10.0-1ubuntu3                            The Cairo 2D vector graphics library
ii  libcanberra0                               0.25-0ubuntu1                              a simple abstract interface for playing event sounds
ii  libcap-ng0                                 0.6.3-1                                    An alternate posix capabilities library
ii  libcap2                                    1:2.19-2                                   support for getting/setting POSIX.1e capabilities
ii  libcap2-bin                                1:2.19-2                                   basic utility programs for using capabilities
ii  libcdio-cdda0                              0.81-4                                     library to read and control digital audio CDs
ii  libcdio-paranoia0                          0.81-4                                     library to read digital audio CDs with error correction
ii  libcdio10                                  0.81-4                                     library to read and control CD-ROM
ii  libck-connector0                           0.4.1-4ubuntu1                             ConsoleKit libraries
ii  libclass-accessor-perl                     0.34-1                                     Perl module that automatically generates accessors
ii  libcomerr2                                 1.41.12-1ubuntu2                           common error description library
ii  libcroco3                                  0.6.2-1                                    a generic Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) parsing and manipulation toolkit
ii  libcups2                                   1.4.4-6ubuntu2.2                           Common UNIX Printing System(tm) - Core library
ii  libcupsimage2                              1.4.4-6ubuntu2.3                           Common UNIX Printing System(tm) - Raster image library
ii  libcurl3-gnutls                            7.21.0-1ubuntu1                            Multi-protocol file transfer library (GnuTLS)
ii  libcwidget3                                0.5.16-3ubuntu1                            high-level terminal interface library for C++ (runtime files)
ii  libdatrie1                                 0.2.3-1                                    Double-array trie library
ii  libdb4.8                                   4.8.30-1                                   Berkeley v4.8 Database Libraries [runtime]
ii  libdbd-mysql-perl                          4.016-1                                    Perl5 database interface to the MySQL database
ii  libdbi-perl                                1.611-1                                    Perl Database Interface (DBI)
ii  libdbus-1-3                                1.4.0-0ubuntu1                             simple interprocess messaging system
ii  libdbus-glib-1-2                           0.88-2                                     simple interprocess messaging system (GLib-based shared library)
ii  libdbusmenu-glib1                          0.3.16-0ubuntu1                            library for passing menus over DBus
ii  libdbusmenu-gtk1                           0.3.16-0ubuntu1                            library for passing menus over DBus - GTK+ version
ii  libdevmapper1.02.1                         2:1.02.39-1ubuntu6                         The Linux Kernel Device Mapper userspace library
ii  libdns66                                   1:9.7.1.dfsg.P2-2                          DNS Shared Library used by BIND
ii  libdrm-intel1                              2.4.21-1ubuntu2.1                          Userspace interface to intel-specific kernel DRM services -- runtime
ii  libdrm-nouveau1                            2.4.21-1ubuntu2.1                          Userspace interface to nouveau-specific kernel DRM services -- runtime
ii  libdrm-radeon1                             2.4.21-1ubuntu2.1                          Userspace interface to radeon-specific kernel DRM services -- runtime
ii  libdrm2                                    2.4.21-1ubuntu2.1                          Userspace interface to kernel DRM services -- runtime
ii  libedit2                                   2.11-20080614-1build1                      BSD editline and history libraries
ii  libeggdbus-1-0                             0.6-1                                      D-Bus bindings for GObject
ii  libelf1                                    0.147-2                                    library to read and write ELF files
ii  libenchant1c2a                             1.6.0-1                                    a wrapper library for various spell checker engines
ii  libept1                                    1.0.3                                      High-level library for managing Debian package information
ii  libevent-1.4-2                             1.4.13-stable-1                            An asynchronous event notification library
ii  libevent-core-1.4-2                        1.4.13-stable-1                            An asynchronous event notification library (core)
ii  libevent-dev                               1.4.13-stable-1                            Development libraries, header files and docs for libevent
ii  libevent-extra-1.4-2                       1.4.13-stable-1                            An asynchronous event notification library (extra)
ii  libexif12                                  0.6.19-1                                   library to parse EXIF files
ii  libexpat1                                  2.0.1-7ubuntu1                             XML parsing C library - runtime library
ii  libffi5                                    3.0.9-2ubuntu2                             Foreign Function Interface library runtime
ii  libflac8                                   1.2.1-3                                    Free Lossless Audio Codec - runtime C library
ii  libfont-afm-perl                           1.20-1                                     Font::AFM - Interface to Adobe Font Metrics files
ii  libfontconfig1                             2.8.0-2ubuntu1                             generic font configuration library - runtime
ii  libfontenc1                                1:1.0.5-2                                  X11 font encoding library
ii  libfreetype6                               2.4.2-2ubuntu0.1                           FreeType 2 font engine, shared library files
ii  libfribidi0                                0.19.2-1                                   Free Implementation of the Unicode BiDi algorithm
ii  libfuse2                                   2.8.4-1ubuntu1                             Filesystem in USErspace library
ii  libgail18                                  2.22.0-0ubuntu1                            GNOME Accessibility Implementation Library -- shared libraries
ii  libgamin0                                  0.1.10-1ubuntu3                            Client library for the gamin file and directory monitoring system
ii  libgc1c2                                   1:6.8-1.2ubuntu2                           conservative garbage collector for C and C++
ii  libgcc1                                    1:4.5.1-7ubuntu2                           GCC support library
ii  libgconf2-4                                2.31.91-0ubuntu3.1                         GNOME configuration database system (shared libraries)
ii  libgcr0                                    2.92.92.is.2.31.91-0ubuntu4.1              Library for Crypto UI related task - runtime
ii  libgcrypt11                                1.4.5-2ubuntu1                             LGPL Crypto library - runtime library
ii  libgd2-xpm                                 2.0.36~rc1~dfsg-3.2ubuntu1                 GD Graphics Library version 2
ii  libgdbm3                                   1.8.3-9                                    GNU dbm database routines (runtime version)
ii  libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0                         2.22.0-0ubuntu1                            GDK Pixbuf library
ii  libgdu0                                    2.30.1-2                                   GObject based Disk Utility Library
ii  libgeoip1                                  1.4.7~beta5+dfsg-1                         A non-DNS IP-to-country resolver library
ii  libgif4                                    4.1.6-9                                    library for GIF images (library)
ii  libgirepository1.0-1                       0.9.3-0ubuntu4                             Library for handling GObject introspection data (runtime library)
ii  libgksu2-0                                 2.0.13~pre1-1ubuntu5                       library providing su and sudo functionality
ii  libgl1-mesa-dri                            7.9~git20100924-0ubuntu2                   A free implementation of the OpenGL API -- DRI modules
ii  libgl1-mesa-glx                            7.9~git20100924-0ubuntu2                   A free implementation of the OpenGL API -- GLX runtime
ii  libglade2-0                                1:2.6.4-1build1                            library to load .glade files at runtime
ii  libglib-perl                               2:1.223-1                                  interface to the GLib and GObject libraries
ii  libglib2.0-0                               2.26.0-0ubuntu1                            The GLib library of C routines
ii  libgmp3c2                                  2:4.3.2+dfsg-1ubuntu1                      Multiprecision arithmetic library
ii  libgnome-keyring0                          2.31.92-0ubuntu1                           GNOME keyring services library
ii  libgnome2-0                                2.32.0-0ubuntu1                            The GNOME library - runtime files
ii  libgnome2-canvas-perl                      1.002-2build1                              Perl interface to the GNOME canvas library
ii  libgnome2-common                           2.32.0-0ubuntu1                            The GNOME library - common files
ii  libgnome2-perl                             1.042-2build1                              Perl interface to the GNOME libraries
ii  libgnome2-vfs-perl                         1.081-1build1                              Perl interface to the 2.x series of the GNOME VFS library
ii  libgnomecanvas2-0                          2.30.2-0ubuntu1                            A powerful object-oriented display - runtime files
ii  libgnomecanvas2-common                     2.30.2-0ubuntu1                            A powerful object-oriented display - common files
ii  libgnomeui-0                               2.24.4-0ubuntu1                            The GNOME libraries (User Interface) - runtime files
ii  libgnomeui-common                          2.24.4-0ubuntu1                            The GNOME libraries (User Interface) - common files
ii  libgnomevfs2-0                             1:2.24.3-1ubuntu1                          GNOME Virtual File System (runtime libraries)
ii  libgnomevfs2-common                        1:2.24.3-1ubuntu1                          GNOME Virtual File System (common files)
ii  libgnomevfs2-extra                         1:2.24.3-1ubuntu1                          GNOME Virtual File System (extra modules)
ii  libgnutls26                                2.8.6-1                                    the GNU TLS library - runtime library
ii  libgomp1                                   4.5.1-7ubuntu2                             GCC OpenMP (GOMP) support library
ii  libgp11-0                                  2.92.92.is.2.31.91-0ubuntu4.1              Glib wrapper library for PKCS#11 - runtime
ii  libgpg-error0                              1.6-1ubuntu2                               library for common error values and messages in GnuPG components
ii  libgphoto2-2                               2.4.8-0ubuntu2                             gphoto2 digital camera library
ii  libgphoto2-port0                           2.4.8-0ubuntu2                             gphoto2 digital camera port library
ii  libgpm2                                    1.20.4-3.3ubuntu1                          General Purpose Mouse - shared library
ii  libgs8                                     8.71.dfsg.2-0ubuntu7                       The Ghostscript PostScript/PDF interpreter Library
ii  libgssapi-krb5-2                           1.8.1+dfsg-5ubuntu0.1                      MIT Kerberos runtime libraries - krb5 GSS-API Mechanism
ii  libgstreamer-plugins-base0.10-0            0.10.30-2                                  GStreamer libraries from the "base" set
ii  libgstreamer0.10-0                         0.10.30-1build2                            Core GStreamer libraries and elements
ii  libgtk2-perl                               2:1.222-1                                  Perl interface to the 2.x series of the Gimp Toolkit library
ii  libgtk2.0-0                                2.22.0-0ubuntu1                            The GTK+ graphical user interface library
ii  libgtk2.0-bin                              2.22.0-0ubuntu1                            The programs for the GTK+ graphical user interface library
ii  libgtk2.0-common                           2.22.0-0ubuntu1                            Common files for the GTK+ graphical user interface library
ii  libgtop2-7                                 2.28.1-1                                   gtop system monitoring library (shared)
ii  libgtop2-common                            2.28.1-1                                   gtop system monitoring library (common)
ii  libgudev-1.0-0                             1:162-2.2                                  GObject-based wrapper library for libudev
ii  libgvfscommon0                             1.6.4-0ubuntu1.1                           userspace virtual filesystem - library
ii  libhtml-format-perl                        2.04-2                                     format HTML syntax trees into text, PostScript or RTF
ii  libhtml-parser-perl                        3.65-1                                     collection of modules that parse HTML text documents
ii  libhtml-tagset-perl                        3.20-2                                     Data tables pertaining to HTML
ii  libhtml-template-perl                      2.9-1                                      HTML::Template : A module for using HTML Templates with Perl
ii  libhtml-tree-perl                          3.23-2                                     Perl module to represent and create HTML syntax trees
ii  libhunspell-1.2-0                          1.2.11-1ubuntu1                            spell checker and morphological analyzer (shared library)
ii  libice6                                    2:1.0.6-1                                  X11 Inter-Client Exchange library
ii  libicu42                                   4.2.1-3                                    International Components for Unicode
ii  libid3tag0                                 0.15.1b-10build2                           ID3 tag reading library from the MAD project
ii  libidl0                                    0.8.14-0.1                                 library for parsing CORBA IDL files
ii  libidn11                                   1.18-1                                     GNU Libidn library, implementation of IETF IDN specifications
ii  libimlib2                                  1.4.2-8                                    powerful image loading and rendering library
ii  libimobiledevice1                          1.0.1-1                                    Library for communicating with the iPhone and iPod Touch
ii  libindicator1                              0.3.14-0ubuntu1                            panel indicator applet - shared library
ii  libio-string-perl                          1.08-2                                     Emulate IO::File interface for in-core strings
ii  libisc60                                   1:9.7.1.dfsg.P2-2                          ISC Shared Library used by BIND
ii  libisccc60                                 1:9.7.1.dfsg.P2-2                          Command Channel Library used by BIND
ii  libisccfg60                                1:9.7.1.dfsg.P2-2                          Config File Handling Library used by BIND
ii  libjack-jackd2-0                           1.9.5~dfsg-19ubuntu1                       JACK Audio Connection Kit (libraries)
ii  libjasper1                                 1.900.1-7                                  The JasPer JPEG-2000 runtime library
ii  libjpeg62                                  6b-16.1                                    The Independent JPEG Group's JPEG runtime library (version 6.2)
ii  libjs-mootools                             1.2.4.0~debian1-1                          compact JavaScript framework
ii  libjson-glib-1.0-0                         0.10.2-2ubuntu2                            GLib JSON manipulation library
ii  libk5crypto3                               1.8.1+dfsg-5ubuntu0.1                      MIT Kerberos runtime libraries - Crypto Library
ii  libkeyutils1                               1.4-1                                      Linux Key Management Utilities (library)
ii  libklibc                                   1.5.20-1                                   minimal libc subset for use with initramfs
ii  libkrb5-3                                  1.8.1+dfsg-5ubuntu0.1                      MIT Kerberos runtime libraries
ii  libkrb5support0                            1.8.1+dfsg-5ubuntu0.1                      MIT Kerberos runtime libraries - Support library
ii  liblaunchpad-integration1                  0.1.38                                     library for launchpad integration
ii  liblcms1                                   1.18.dfsg-1ubuntu2                         Color management library
ii  libldap-2.4-2                              2.4.23-0ubuntu3.3                          OpenLDAP libraries
ii  liblocale-gettext-perl                     1.05-6                                     Using libc functions for internationalization in Perl
ii  liblockfile1                               1.08-4                                     NFS-safe locking library, includes dotlockfile program
ii  liblqr-1-0                                 0.4.1-1                                    converts plain array images into multi-size representation
ii  libltdl7                                   2.2.6b-2ubuntu1                            A system independent dlopen wrapper for GNU libtool
ii  liblua5.1-0                                5.1.4-5                                    Simple, extensible, embeddable programming language
ii  liblwres60                                 1:9.7.1.dfsg.P2-2                          Lightweight Resolver Library used by BIND
ii  liblzma2                                   4.999.9beta+20100527-1                     XZ-format compression library
ii  libmagic1                                  5.03-5ubuntu1                              File type determination library using "magic" numbers
ii  libmagickcore3                             7:6.6.2.6-1ubuntu1.1                       low-level image manipulation library
ii  libmagickwand3                             7:6.6.2.6-1ubuntu1.1                       image manipulation library
ii  libmailtools-perl                          2.06-1                                     Manipulate email in perl programs
ii  libmcrypt4                                 2.5.8-3.1                                  De-/Encryption Library
ii  libmpfr4                                   3.0.0-2                                    multiple precision floating-point computation
ii  libmysqlclient16                           5.1.49-1ubuntu8.1                          MySQL database client library
ii  libncurses5                                5.7+20100626-0ubuntu1                      shared libraries for terminal handling
ii  libncursesw5                               5.7+20100626-0ubuntu1                      shared libraries for terminal handling (wide character support)
ii  libneon27-gnutls                           0.29.3-2                                   An HTTP and WebDAV client library (GnuTLS enabled)
ii  libnet-daemon-perl                         0.43-1                                     Perl module for building portable Perl daemons easily
ii  libnewt0.52                                0.52.11-1                                  Not Erik's Windowing Toolkit - text mode windowing with slang
ii  libnih-dbus1                               1.0.2-1ubuntu2                             NIH D-Bus Bindings Library
ii  libnih1                                    1.0.2-1ubuntu2                             NIH Utility Library
ii  libnspr4-0d                                4.8.6-0ubuntu1                             NetScape Portable Runtime Library
ii  libnss3-1d                                 3.12.8-0ubuntu0.10.10.1                    Network Security Service libraries
ii  libntfs-3g79                               1:2010.8.8-0ubuntu1                        ntfs-3g filesystem in userspace (FUSE) library
ii  libntfs10                                  2.0.0-1ubuntu4                             library that provides common NTFS access functions
ii  libogg0                                    1.2.0~dfsg-1                               Ogg bitstream library
ii  libopenobex1                               1.5-2build1                                OBEX protocol library
ii  liborbit2                                  1:2.14.18-0.1                              libraries for ORBit2 - a CORBA ORB
ii  libpam-ck-connector                        0.4.1-4ubuntu1                             ConsoleKit PAM module
ii  libpam-gnome-keyring                       2.92.92.is.2.31.91-0ubuntu4.1              PAM module to unlock the GNOME keyring upon login
ii  libpam-modules                             1.1.1-4ubuntu2                             Pluggable Authentication Modules for PAM
ii  libpam-runtime                             1.1.1-4ubuntu2                             Runtime support for the PAM library
ii  libpam0g                                   1.1.1-4ubuntu2                             Pluggable Authentication Modules library
ii  libpango-perl                              1.221-2                                    Perl module to layout and render international text
ii  libpango1.0-0                              1.28.1-1ubuntu3                            Layout and rendering of internationalized text
ii  libpango1.0-common                         1.28.1-1ubuntu3                            Modules and configuration files for the Pango
ii  libpaper-utils                             1.1.24                                     library for handling paper characteristics (utilities)
ii  libpaper1                                  1.1.24                                     library for handling paper characteristics
ii  libparse-debianchangelog-perl              1.1.1-2ubuntu2                             parse Debian changelogs and output them in other formats
ii  libparted0debian1                          2.3-2ubuntu1                               The GNU Parted disk partitioning shared library
ii  libpcap0.8                                 1.1.1-2                                    system interface for user-level packet capture
ii  libpci3                                    1:3.1.7-4ubuntu2                           Linux PCI Utilities (shared library)
ii  libpcre3                                   8.02-1                                     Perl 5 Compatible Regular Expression Library - runtime files
ii  libpcre3-dev                               8.02-1                                     Perl 5 Compatible Regular Expression Library - development files
ii  libpcrecpp0                                8.02-1                                     Perl 5 Compatible Regular Expression Library - C++ runtime files
ii  libperl5.10                                5.10.1-12ubuntu2                           shared Perl library
ii  libpixman-1-0                              0.18.4-1                                   pixel-manipulation library for X and cairo
ii  libplist1                                  1.3-1                                      Library for handling Apple binary and XML property lists
ii  libplrpc-perl                              0.2020-2                                   Perl extensions for writing PlRPC servers and clients
ii  libplymouth2                               0.8.2-2ubuntu5.1                           graphical boot animation and logger - shared libraries
ii  libpng12-0                                 1.2.44-1                                   PNG library - runtime
ii  libpolkit-agent-1-0                        0.96-2ubuntu1                              PolicyKit Authentication Agent API
ii  libpolkit-backend-1-0                      0.96-2ubuntu1                              PolicyKit backend API
ii  libpolkit-gobject-1-0                      0.96-2ubuntu1                              PolicyKit Authorization API
ii  libpopt0                                   1.16-1                                     lib for parsing cmdline parameters
ii  libportaudio2                              19+svn20100802-0ubuntu1                    Portable audio I/O - shared library
ii  libproxy0                                  0.3.1-1ubuntu1                             automatic proxy configuration management library (shared)
ii  libpulse0                                  1:0.9.22~0.9.21+stable-queue-32-g8478-0ubu PulseAudio client libraries
ii  libpython2.6                               2.6.6-5ubuntu1                             Shared Python runtime library (version 2.6)
ii  librarian0                                 0.8.1-4.1                                  Documentation meta-data library (library package)
ii  libreadline5                               5.2-7build1                                GNU readline and history libraries, run-time libraries
ii  libreadline6                               6.1-3                                      GNU readline and history libraries, run-time libraries
ii  librpc-xml-perl                            0.73-1                                     Perl module implementation of XML-RPC
ii  librsvg2-2                                 2.32.0-0ubuntu1                            SAX-based renderer library for SVG files (runtime)
ii  librsvg2-common                            2.32.0-0ubuntu1                            SAX-based renderer library for SVG files (extra runtime)
ii  libruby1.8                                 1.8.7.299-2                                Libraries necessary to run Ruby 1.8
ii  libsasl2-2                                 2.1.23.dfsg1-5ubuntu2                      Cyrus SASL - authentication abstraction library
ii  libsasl2-modules                           2.1.23.dfsg1-5ubuntu2                      Cyrus SASL - pluggable authentication modules
ii  libselinux1                                2.0.94-1                                   SELinux runtime shared libraries
ii  libsepol1                                  2.0.41-1                                   SELinux library for manipulating binary security policies
ii  libsgutils2-2                              1.29-1                                     utilities for devices using the SCSI command set (shared libraries)
ii  libsigc++-2.0-0c2a                         2.2.4.2-1                                  type-safe Signal Framework for C++ - runtime
ii  libslang2                                  2.2.2-4ubuntu1                             The S-Lang programming library - runtime version
ii  libsm6                                     2:1.1.1-1                                  X11 Session Management library
ii  libsmbclient                               2:3.5.4~dfsg-1ubuntu8.2                    shared library for communication with SMB/CIFS servers
ii  libsmi2ldbl                                0.4.8+dfsg2-2                              library to access SMI MIB information
ii  libsndfile1                                1.0.21-2                                   Library for reading/writing audio files
ii  libsoup-gnome2.4-1                         2.31.92-0ubuntu1                           an HTTP library implementation in C -- GNOME support library
ii  libsoup2.4-1                               2.31.92-0ubuntu1                           an HTTP library implementation in C -- Shared library
ii  libsqlite3-0                               3.7.2-1                                    SQLite 3 shared library
ii  libss2                                     1.41.12-1ubuntu2                           command-line interface parsing library
ii  libssl-dev                                 0.9.8o-1ubuntu4.3                          SSL development libraries, header files and documentation
ii  libssl0.9.8                                0.9.8o-1ubuntu4.3                          SSL shared libraries
ii  libstartup-notification0                   0.10-1build1                               library for program launch feedback (shared library)
ii  libstdc++6                                 4.5.1-7ubuntu2                             The GNU Standard C++ Library v3
ii  libsub-name-perl                           0.04-1build1                               Assigns a new name to referenced sub
ii  libsvn1                                    1.6.12dfsg-1ubuntu1                        Shared libraries used by Subversion
ii  libt1-5                                    5.1.2-3build1                              Type 1 font rasterizer library - runtime
ii  libtalloc2                                 2.0.1-1                                    hierarchical pool based memory allocator
ii  libtasn1-3                                 2.7-1                                      Manage ASN.1 structures (runtime)
ii  libtdb1                                    1.2.1-2                                    Trivial Database - shared library
ii  libterm-readkey-perl                       2.30-4build1                               A perl module for simple terminal control
ii  libtext-charwidth-perl                     0.04-6                                     get display widths of characters on the terminal
ii  libtext-iconv-perl                         1.7-2                                      converts between character sets in Perl
ii  libtext-wrapi18n-perl                      0.06-7                                     internationalized substitute of Text::Wrap
ii  libthai-data                               0.1.14-2                                   Data files for Thai language support library
ii  libthai0                                   0.1.14-2                                   Thai language support library
ii  libtiff4                                   3.9.4-2                                    Tag Image File Format (TIFF) library
ii  libtimedate-perl                           1.2000-1                                   collection of modules to manipulate date/time information
ii  libudev0                                   162-2.1                                    udev library
ii  liburi-perl                                1.54-1                                     module to manipulate and access URI strings
ii  libusb-0.1-4                               2:0.1.12-15ubuntu2                         userspace USB programming library
ii  libusb-1.0-0                               2:1.0.8-2                                  userspace USB programming library
ii  libusbmuxd1                                1.0.4-1                                    USB multiplexor daemon for iPhone and iPod Touch devices - library
ii  libuuid1                                   2.17.2-0ubuntu1                            Universally Unique ID library
ii  libvorbis0a                                1.3.1-1                                    The Vorbis General Audio Compression Codec (Decoder library)
ii  libvorbisenc2                              1.3.1-1                                    The Vorbis General Audio Compression Codec (Encoder library)
ii  libvorbisfile3                             1.3.1-1                                    The Vorbis General Audio Compression Codec (High Level API)
ii  libvte-common                              1:0.26.0-0ubuntu2                          Terminal emulator widget for GTK+ 2.0 - common files
ii  libvte9                                    1:0.26.0-0ubuntu2                          Terminal emulator widget for GTK+ 2.0 - runtime files
ii  libwbclient0                               2:3.5.4~dfsg-1ubuntu8.2                    Samba winbind client library
ii  libwebkit-1.0-2                            1.2.5-0ubuntu0.10.10.1                     Web content engine library for Gtk+
ii  libwebkit-1.0-common                       1.2.5-0ubuntu0.10.10.1                     Web content engine library for Gtk+ - data files
ii  libwrap0                                   7.6.q-19                                   Wietse Venema's TCP wrappers library
ii  libwww-perl                                5.836-1                                    Perl HTTP/WWW client/server library
ii  libx11-6                                   2:1.3.3-3ubuntu1                           X11 client-side library
ii  libx11-data                                2:1.3.3-3ubuntu1                           X11 client-side library
ii  libx11-xcb1                                2:1.3.3-3ubuntu1                           Xlib/XCB interface library
ii  libxapian15                                1.0.20-2                                   Search engine library
ii  libxau6                                    1:1.0.6-1                                  X11 authorisation library
ii  libxaw7                                    2:1.0.7-1                                  X11 Athena Widget library
ii  libxcb-atom1                               0.3.6-1build1                              utility libraries for X C Binding -- atom
ii  libxcb-aux0                                0.3.6-1build1                              utility libraries for X C Binding -- aux
ii  libxcb-event1                              0.3.6-1build1                              utility libraries for X C Binding -- event
ii  libxcb-render0                             1.6-1                                      X C Binding, render extension
ii  libxcb-shm0                                1.6-1                                      X C Binding, shm extension
ii  libxcb1                                    1.6-1                                      X C Binding
ii  libxcomposite1                             1:0.4.2-1                                  X11 Composite extension library
ii  libxcursor1                                1:1.1.10-2                                 X cursor management library
ii  libxdamage1                                1:1.1.3-1                                  X11 damaged region extension library
ii  libxdmcp6                                  1:1.0.3-2                                  X11 Display Manager Control Protocol library
ii  libxext6                                   2:1.1.2-1                                  X11 miscellaneous extension library
ii  libxfixes3                                 1:4.0.5-1                                  X11 miscellaneous 'fixes' extension library
ii  libxfont1                                  1:1.4.2-1                                  X11 font rasterisation library
ii  libxft2                                    2.1.14-2ubuntu1                            FreeType-based font drawing library for X
ii  libxi6                                     2:1.3-4                                    X11 Input extension library
ii  libxinerama1                               2:1.1-3                                    X11 Xinerama extension library
ii  libxml-parser-perl                         2.36-1.1build3                             Perl module for parsing XML files
ii  libxml2                                    2.7.7.dfsg-4ubuntu0.1                      GNOME XML library
ii  libxml2-dev                                2.7.7.dfsg-4ubuntu0.1                      Development files for the GNOME XML library
ii  libxmu6                                    2:1.0.5-1                                  X11 miscellaneous utility library
ii  libxmuu1                                   2:1.0.5-1                                  X11 miscellaneous micro-utility library
ii  libxpm4                                    1:3.5.8-1                                  X11 pixmap library
ii  libxrandr2                                 2:1.3.0-3                                  X11 RandR extension library
ii  libxrender1                                1:0.9.6-1                                  X Rendering Extension client library
ii  libxslt1.1                                 1.1.26-6                                   XSLT 1.0 processing library - runtime library
ii  libxt6                                     1:1.0.7-1                                  X11 toolkit intrinsics library
ii  libxtst6                                   2:1.1.0-3                                  X11 Testing -- Record extension library
ii  libxv1                                     2:1.0.5-1                                  X11 Video extension library
ii  libxxf86dga1                               2:1.1.1-2                                  X11 Direct Graphics Access extension library
ii  libxxf86vm1                                1:1.1.0-2                                  X11 XFree86 video mode extension library
ii  linux-firmware                             1.38                                       Firmware for Linux kernel drivers
ii  linux-generic                              2.6.35.22.23                               Complete Generic Linux kernel
ii  linux-headers-2.6.35-22                    2.6.35-22.35                               Header files related to Linux kernel version 2.6.35
ii  linux-headers-2.6.35-22-generic            2.6.35-22.35                               Linux kernel headers for version 2.6.35 on x86/x86_64
ii  linux-headers-generic                      2.6.35.22.23                               Generic Linux kernel headers
ii  linux-image-2.6.35-22-generic              2.6.35-22.35                               Linux kernel image for version 2.6.35 on x86/x86_64
ii  linux-image-generic                        2.6.35.22.23                               Generic Linux kernel image
ii  linux-libc-dev                             2.6.35-1024.42                             Linux Kernel Headers for development
ii  locales                                    2.13+git20100825-1                         common files for locale support
ii  lockfile-progs                             0.1.15                                     Programs for locking and unlocking files and mailboxes
ii  login                                      1:4.1.4.2-1ubuntu3                         system login tools
ii  logrotate                                  3.7.8-6ubuntu1                             Log rotation utility
ii  lsb-base                                   4.0-0ubuntu8                               Linux Standard Base 4.0 init script functionality
ii  lsb-release                                4.0-0ubuntu8                               Linux Standard Base version reporting utility
ii  lshw                                       02.14-1build1                              information about hardware configuration
ii  lsof                                       4.81.dfsg.1-1build1                        List open files
ii  ltrace                                     0.5.3-2ubuntu6                             Tracks runtime library calls in dynamically linked programs
ii  m4                                         1.4.14-3                                   a macro processing language
ii  make                                       3.81-8                                     An utility for Directing compilation.
ii  makedev                                    2.3.1-89ubuntu1                            creates device files in /dev
ii  man-db                                     2.5.7-4                                    on-line manual pager
ii  manpages                                   3.24-1ubuntu1                              Manual pages about using a GNU/Linux system
ii  manpages-dev                               3.24-1ubuntu1                              Manual pages about using GNU/Linux for development
ii  mawk                                       1.3.3-15ubuntu2                            a pattern scanning and text processing language
ii  memtest86+                                 4.10-1ubuntu2                              thorough real-mode memory tester
ii  menu                                       2.1.44ubuntu1                              generates programs menu for all menu-aware applications
ii  mime-support                               3.48-1ubuntu2                              MIME files 'mime.types' & 'mailcap', and support programs
ii  mlocate                                    0.22.2-1ubuntu1                            quickly find files on the filesystem based on their name
ii  module-init-tools                          3.12-1ubuntu2                              tools for managing Linux kernel modules
ii  mount                                      2.17.2-0ubuntu1                            Tools for mounting and manipulating filesystems
ii  mountall                                   2.19                                       filesystem mounting tool
ii  mtools                                     4.0.12-1                                   Tools for manipulating MSDOS files
ii  mtr-tiny                                   0.75-2build1                               Full screen ncurses traceroute tool
ii  myspell-en-au                              2.1-5                                      English_australian dictionary for myspell
ii  myspell-en-gb                              1:3.2.1-2ubuntu1                           English_british dictionary for myspell
ii  myspell-en-za                              1:3.2.1-2ubuntu1                           English_southafrican dictionary for myspell
ii  mysql-client-5.1                           5.1.49-1ubuntu8.1                          MySQL database client binaries
ii  mysql-client-core-5.1                      5.1.49-1ubuntu8.1                          MySQL database core client binaries
ii  mysql-common                               5.1.49-1ubuntu8.1                          MySQL database common files, e.g. /etc/mysql/my.cnf
ii  mysql-server                               5.1.49-1ubuntu8.1                          MySQL database server (metapackage depending on the latest version)
ii  mysql-server-5.1                           5.1.49-1ubuntu8.1                          MySQL database server binaries and system database setup
ii  mysql-server-core-5.1                      5.1.49-1ubuntu8.1                          MySQL database server binaries
ii  nano                                       2.2.4-1                                    small, friendly text editor inspired by Pico
ii  ncurses-base                               5.7+20100626-0ubuntu1                      basic terminal type definitions
ii  ncurses-bin                                5.7+20100626-0ubuntu1                      terminal-related programs and man pages
ii  net-tools                                  1.60-23ubuntu3                             The NET-3 networking toolkit
ii  netbase                                    4.35ubuntu3                                Basic TCP/IP networking system
ii  netcat-openbsd                             1.89-3ubuntu2                              TCP/IP swiss army knife
ii  ntfs-3g                                    1:2010.8.8-0ubuntu1                        read-write NTFS driver for FUSE
ii  ntfsprogs                                  2.0.0-1ubuntu4                             tools for doing neat things in NTFS partitions from Linux
ii  ntpdate                                    1:4.2.4p8+dfsg-1ubuntu6                    client for setting system time from NTP servers
ii  obex-data-server                           0.4.5-1build1                              D-Bus service for OBEX client and server side functionality
ii  openjdk-6-jre                              6b20-1.9.2-0ubuntu2                        OpenJDK Java runtime, using Hotspot JIT
ii  openjdk-6-jre-headless                     6b20-1.9.2-0ubuntu2                        OpenJDK Java runtime, using Hotspot JIT (headless)
ii  openjdk-6-jre-lib                          6b20-1.9.2-0ubuntu2                        OpenJDK Java runtime (architecture independent libraries)
ii  openssh-client                             1:5.5p1-4ubuntu4                           secure shell (SSH) client, for secure access to remote machines
ii  openssh-server                             1:5.5p1-4ubuntu4                           secure shell (SSH) server, for secure access from remote machines
ii  openssl                                    0.9.8o-1ubuntu4.2                          Secure Socket Layer (SSL) binary and related cryptographic tools
ii  os-prober                                  1.39                                       utility to detect other OSes on a set of drives
ii  parted                                     2.3-2ubuntu1                               The GNU Parted disk partition resizing program
ii  passwd                                     1:4.1.4.2-1ubuntu3                         change and administer password and group data
ii  pciutils                                   1:3.1.7-4ubuntu2                           Linux PCI Utilities
ii  perl                                       5.10.1-12ubuntu2                           Larry Wall's Practical Extraction and Report Language
ii  perl-base                                  5.10.1-12ubuntu2                           minimal Perl system
ii  perl-modules                               5.10.1-12ubuntu2                           Core Perl modules
ii  php5-cli                                   5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3                           command-line interpreter for the php5 scripting language
ii  php5-common                                5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3                           Common files for packages built from the php5 source
ii  php5-gd                                    5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3                           GD module for php5
ii  php5-mcrypt                                5.3.3-0ubuntu2                             MCrypt module for php5
ii  php5-mysql                                 5.3.3-1ubuntu9.3                           MySQL module for php5
rc  phpmyadmin                                 4:3.3.7-3build0.10.10.1                    MySQL web administration tool
ii  plymouth                                   0.8.2-2ubuntu5.1                           graphical boot animation and logger - main package
ii  plymouth-theme-ubuntu-text                 0.8.2-2ubuntu5.1                           graphical boot animation and logger - ubuntu-logo theme
ii  policykit-1                                0.96-2ubuntu1                              framework for managing administrative policies and privileges
ii  policykit-1-gnome                          0.96-2ubuntu4                              GNOME authentication agent for PolicyKit-1
ii  popularity-contest                         1.48ubuntu1                                Vote for your favourite packages automatically
ii  powermgmt-base                             1.31                                       Common utils and configs for power management
ii  ppp                                        2.4.5~git20081126t100229-0ubuntu4          Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) - daemon
ii  pppconfig                                  2.3.18ubuntu2                              A text menu based utility for configuring ppp
ii  pppoeconf                                  1.19ubuntu1                                configures PPPoE/ADSL connections
ii  procps                                     1:3.2.8-9ubuntu3                           /proc file system utilities
ii  psmisc                                     22.11-1                                    utilities that use the proc file system
ii  python                                     2.6.6-2ubuntu1                             interactive high-level object-oriented language (default version)
ii  python-apt                                 0.7.96.1ubuntu11                           Python interface to libapt-pkg
ii  python-cairo                               1.8.8-1                                    Python bindings for the Cairo vector graphics library
ii  python-central                             0.6.15ubuntu2                              register and build utility for Python packages
ii  python-dbus                                0.83.0-1ubuntu3                            simple interprocess messaging system (Python interface)
ii  python-debian                              0.1.16ubuntu1                              Python modules to work with Debian-related data formats
ii  python-gdbm                                2.6.6-0ubuntu1                             GNU dbm database support for Python
ii  python-glade2                              2.21.0-0ubuntu1                            GTK+ bindings: Glade support
ii  python-gnupginterface                      0.3.2-9.1                                  Python interface to GnuPG (GPG)
ii  python-gobject                             2.21.5-0ubuntu3                            Python bindings for the GObject library
ii  python-gobject-cairo                       2.21.5-0ubuntu3                            Python Cairo bindings for the GObject library
ii  python-gtk2                                2.21.0-0ubuntu1                            Python bindings for the GTK+ widget set
ii  python-minimal                             2.6.6-2ubuntu1                             minimal subset of the Python language (default version)
ii  python-software-properties                 0.76.7                                     manage the repositories that you install software from
ii  python-support                             1.0.9ubuntu1                               automated rebuilding support for Python modules
ii  python-vte                                 1:0.26.0-0ubuntu2                          Python bindings for the VTE widget set
ii  python-webkit                              1.1.8-0ubuntu2                             WebKit/Gtk Python bindings
ii  python-xapian                              1.0.20-1                                   Xapian search engine interface for Python
ii  python2.6                                  2.6.6-5ubuntu1                             An interactive high-level object-oriented language (version 2.6)
ii  python2.6-minimal                          2.6.6-5ubuntu1                             A minimal subset of the Python language (version 2.6)
ii  rarian-compat                              0.8.1-4.1                                  Documentation meta-data library (compatibility tools)
ii  readline-common                            6.1-3                                      GNU readline and history libraries, common files
ii  rsync                                      3.0.7-2ubuntu1                             fast remote file copy program (like rcp)
ii  rsyslog                                    4.2.0-2ubuntu8                             enhanced multi-threaded syslogd
ii  sed                                        4.2.1-7                                    The GNU sed stream editor
ii  sensible-utils                             0.0.4ubuntu1                               Utilities for sensible alternative selection
ii  sgml-base                                  1.26                                       SGML infrastructure and SGML catalog file support
ii  sgml-data                                  2.0.4                                      common SGML and XML data
ii  shared-mime-info                           0.71-3                                     FreeDesktop.org shared MIME database and spec
ii  software-properties-gtk                    0.76.7                                     manage the repositories that you install software from
ii  ssl-cert                                   1.0.26                                     simple debconf wrapper for OpenSSL
ii  strace                                     4.5.20-2ubuntu2                            A system call tracer
ii  subversion                                 1.6.12dfsg-1ubuntu1                        Advanced version control system
ii  sudo                                       1.7.2p7-1ubuntu2                           Provide limited super user privileges to specific users
ii  synaptic                                   0.63.1ubuntu14                             Graphical package manager
ii  sysv-rc                                    2.87dsf-4ubuntu19                          System-V-like runlevel change mechanism
ii  sysvinit-utils                             2.87dsf-4ubuntu19                          System-V-like utilities
ii  tar                                        1.23-2                                     GNU version of the tar archiving utility
ii  tasksel                                    2.81ubuntu1                                Tool for selecting tasks for installation on Debian systems
ii  tasksel-data                               2.81ubuntu1                                Official tasks used for installation of Debian systems
ii  tcl8.4                                     8.4.19-4                                   Tcl (the Tool Command Language) v8.4 - run-time files
ii  tcpd                                       7.6.q-19                                   Wietse Venema's TCP wrapper utilities
ii  tcpdump                                    4.1.1-1ubuntu2                             A powerful tool for network monitoring and data acquisition
ii  telnet                                     0.17-36build1                              The telnet client
ii  tightvncserver                             1.3.9-6.1                                  virtual network computing server software
ii  time                                       1.7-23ubuntu1                              The GNU time program for measuring cpu resource usage
ii  tree                                       1.5.3-1                                    displays directory tree, in color
ii  ttf-dejavu-core                            2.31-1                                     Vera font family derivate with additional characters
ii  ttf-dejavu-extra                           2.31-1                                     Vera font family derivate with additional characters
ii  tzdata                                     2010o-0ubuntu0.10.10                       time zone and daylight-saving time data
ii  tzdata-java                                2010o-0ubuntu0.10.10                       time zone and daylight-saving time data for use by java runtimes
ii  ubufox                                     0.9~rc2-0ubuntu5.1                         transitional dummy package
ii  ubuntu-keyring                             2010.+09.30                                GnuPG keys of the Ubuntu archive
ii  ubuntu-minimal                             1.207                                      Minimal core of Ubuntu
ii  ubuntu-standard                            1.207                                      The Ubuntu standard system
ii  ucf                                        3.0025                                     Update Configuration File: preserve user changes to config files.
ii  udev                                       162-2.1                                    rule-based device node and kernel event manager
ii  udisks                                     1.0.1+git20100614-3                        abstraction for enumerating block devices
ii  ufw                                        0.30.0-1ubuntu2                            program for managing a Netfilter firewall
ii  unattended-upgrades                        0.62ubuntu1                                automatic installation of security upgrades
ii  unzip                                      6.0-4                                      De-archiver for .zip files
ii  update-manager-core                        1:0.142.20                                 manage release upgrades
ii  upstart                                    0.6.6-3                                    event-based init daemon
ii  ureadahead                                 0.100.0-8                                  Read required files in advance
ii  usbmuxd                                    1.0.4-1                                    USB multiplexor daemon for iPhone and iPod Touch devices
ii  usbutils                                   0.87-4                                     Linux USB utilities
ii  util-linux                                 2.17.2-0ubuntu1                            Miscellaneous system utilities
ii  uuid-runtime                               2.17.2-0ubuntu1                            runtime components for the Universally Unique ID library
ii  vim                                        2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4                         Vi IMproved - enhanced vi editor
ii  vim-common                                 2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4                         Vi IMproved - Common files
ii  vim-gtk                                    2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4                         Vi IMproved - enhanced vi editor - with GTK2 GUI
ii  vim-gui-common                             2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4                         Vi IMproved - Common GUI files
ii  vim-runtime                                2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4                         Vi IMproved - Runtime files
ii  vim-tiny                                   2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4                         Vi IMproved - enhanced vi editor - compact version
ii  w3m                                        0.5.2-6                                    WWW browsable pager with excellent tables/frames support
ii  wamerican                                  6-3                                        American English dictionary words for /usr/share/dict
ii  wbritish                                   6-3                                        British English dictionary words for /usr/share/dict
ii  wget                                       1.12-1.1ubuntu3                            retrieves files from the web
ii  whiptail                                   0.52.11-1                                  Displays user-friendly dialog boxes from shell scripts
ii  wireless-crda                              1.12                                       Wireless Central Regulatory Domain Agent
ii  wireshark                                  1.2.11-4build0.10.10.1                     network traffic analyzer - GTK+ version
ii  wireshark-common                           1.2.11-4build0.10.10.1                     network traffic analyzer - common files
ii  wwwconfig-common                           0.2.1                                      Debian web auto configuration
ii  x-ttcidfont-conf                           32                                         TrueType and CID fonts configuration for X
ii  x11-common                                 1:7.5+6ubuntu3                             X Window System (X.Org) infrastructure
ii  x11-utils                                  7.5+4                                      X11 utilities
ii  x11-xserver-utils                          7.5+2ubuntu1                               X server utilities
ii  xauth                                      1:1.0.4-1                                  X authentication utility
ii  xfonts-base                                1:1.0.1                                    standard fonts for X
ii  xfonts-encodings                           1:1.0.3-1                                  Encodings for X.Org fonts
ii  xfonts-terminus                            4.30-2                                     Fixed-width fonts for fast reading
ii  xfonts-utils                               1:7.5+2                                    X Window System font utility programs
ii  xkb-data                                   1.8-1ubuntu8                               X Keyboard Extension (XKB) configuration data
ii  xml-core                                   0.13                                       XML infrastructure and XML catalog file support
ii  xul-ext-ubufox                             0.9~rc2-0ubuntu5.1                         Ubuntu-specific configuration defaults and apt support for Firefox
ii  xz-utils                                   4.999.9beta+20100527-1                     XZ-format compression utilities
ii  zlib1g                                     1:1.2.3.4.dfsg-3ubuntu1                    compression library - runtime
ii  zlib1g-dev                                 1:1.2.3.4.dfsg-3ubuntu1                    compression library - development
bash#


8/ Upgrade a package to the latest available version

bash# sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
phpmyadmin is already the newest version.
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 70 not upgraded.
bash#


9/ Upgrade ALL installed packages

bash#  sudo apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages have been kept back:
  linux-generic linux-headers-generic linux-image-generic
The following packages will be upgraded:
  apache2 apache2-mpm-prefork apache2-utils apache2.2-bin apache2.2-common apparmor apparmor-utils bind9-host bsdutils dnsutils dpkg fuse-utils icedtea-6-jre-cacao ifupdown language-pack-en
  language-pack-gnome-en libapparmor-perl libapparmor1 libaprutil1 libaprutil1-dbd-sqlite3 libaprutil1-ldap libbind9-60 libblkid1 libc-bin libc-dev-bin libc6 libc6-dev libcups2 libdbus-1-3
  libdns66 libfuse2 libgssapi-krb5-2 libisc60 libisccc60 libisccfg60 libk5crypto3 libkrb5-3 libkrb5support0 liblcms1 libldap-2.4-2 liblwres60 libparted0debian1 libsqlite3-0 libsvn1 libudev0
  libuuid1 linux-firmware linux-libc-dev mount openjdk-6-jre openjdk-6-jre-headless openjdk-6-jre-lib openssh-client openssh-server openssl parted python python-apt python-minimal subversion
  sudo tar udev update-manager-core upstart util-linux uuid-runtime
67 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
Need to get 70.4MB of archives.
After this operation, 705kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? n
Abort.
bash#


10/ Uninstall, Remove, Delete, Suppress, Deinstall a specific package

bash# sudo apt-get remove phpmyadmin
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  dbconfig-common php5-gd libmcrypt4 libt1-5 libgd2-xpm php5-mcrypt wwwconfig-common javascript-common libjs-mootools
Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  phpmyadmin
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 70 not upgraded.
After this operation, 17.7MB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y
(Reading database ... 64951 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing phpmyadmin ...
dbconfig-common: dumping mysql database phpmyadmin to /var/tmp/phpmyadmin.phpmyadmin.2011-02-02-13.59.mysql.j7Tl3H.
error encountered dumping database:
mysqldump: Got error: 1049: Unknown database 'phpmyadmin' when selecting the database
dbconfig-common: phpmyadmin remove: retrying.
dbconfig-common: writing config to /etc/dbconfig-common/phpmyadmin.conf
granting access to database phpmyadmin for phpmyadmin@localhost: failed.
error encountered creating user:
mysql said: ERROR 1044 (42000) at line 1: Access denied for user 'phpmyadmin'@'localhost' to database 'phpmyadmin'
dbconfig-common: phpmyadmin reconfigure: ignoring errors from here forwards
populating database via sql...  done.
dbconfig-common: flushing administrative password
dbconfig-common: dropping mysql database phpmyadmin.
Processing triggers for man-db ...
bash#


11/ Help on the commands used above

bash# apt-get help
apt 0.8.3ubuntu7 for amd64 compiled on Oct  5 2010 14:14:04
Usage: apt-get [options] command
       apt-get [options] install|remove pkg1 [pkg2 ...]
       apt-get [options] source pkg1 [pkg2 ...]

apt-get is a simple command line interface for downloading and
installing packages. The most frequently used commands are update
and install.

Commands:
   update - Retrieve new lists of packages
   upgrade - Perform an upgrade
   install - Install new packages (pkg is libc6 not libc6.deb)
   remove - Remove packages
   autoremove - Remove automatically all unused packages
   purge - Remove packages and config files
   source - Download source archives
   build-dep - Configure build-dependencies for source packages
   dist-upgrade - Distribution upgrade, see apt-get(8)
   dselect-upgrade - Follow dselect selections
   clean - Erase downloaded archive files
   autoclean - Erase old downloaded archive files
   check - Verify that there are no broken dependencies
   markauto - Mark the given packages as automatically installed
   unmarkauto - Mark the given packages as manually installed

Options:
  -h  This help text.
  -q  Loggable output - no progress indicator
  -qq No output except for errors
  -d  Download only - do NOT install or unpack archives
  -s  No-act. Perform ordering simulation
  -y  Assume Yes to all queries and do not prompt
  -f  Attempt to correct a system with broken dependencies in place
  -m  Attempt to continue if archives are unlocatable
  -u  Show a list of upgraded packages as well
  -b  Build the source package after fetching it
  -V  Show verbose version numbers
  -c=? Read this configuration file
  -o=? Set an arbitrary configuration option, eg -o dir::cache=/tmp
See the apt-get(8), sources.list(5) and apt.conf(5) manual
pages for more information and options.
                       This APT has Super Cow Powers.
bash#
bash# dpkg --help
Usage: dpkg [<option> ...] <command>

Commands:
  -i|--install       <.deb file name> ... | -R|--recursive <directory> ...
  --unpack           <.deb file name> ... | -R|--recursive <directory> ...
  -A|--record-avail  <.deb file name> ... | -R|--recursive <directory> ...
  --configure        <package> ... | -a|--pending
  --triggers-only    <package> ... | -a|--pending
  -r|--remove        <package> ... | -a|--pending
  -P|--purge         <package> ... | -a|--pending
  --get-selections [<pattern> ...] Get list of selections to stdout.
  --set-selections                 Set package selections from stdin.
  --clear-selections               Deselect every non-essential package.
  --update-avail <Packages-file>   Replace available packages info.
  --merge-avail <Packages-file>    Merge with info from file.
  --clear-avail                    Erase existing available info.
  --forget-old-unavail             Forget uninstalled unavailable pkgs.
  -s|--status <package> ...        Display package status details.
  -p|--print-avail <package> ...   Display available version details.
  -L|--listfiles <package> ...     List files `owned' by package(s).
  -l|--list [<pattern> ...]        List packages concisely.
  -S|--search <pattern> ...        Find package(s) owning file(s).
  -C|--audit                       Check for broken package(s).
  --print-architecture             Print dpkg architecture.
  --compare-versions <a> <op> <b>  Compare version numbers - see below.
  --force-help                     Show help on forcing.
  -Dh|--debug=help                 Show help on debugging.

  -h|--help                        Show this help message.
  --version                        Show the version.

Use dpkg -b|--build|-c|--contents|-e|--control|-I|--info|-f|--field|
 -x|--extract|-X|--vextract|--fsys-tarfile  on archives (type dpkg-deb --help).

For internal use: dpkg --assert-support-predepends | --predep-package |
  --assert-working-epoch | --assert-long-filenames | --assert-multi-conrep.

Options:
  --admindir=<directory>     Use <directory> instead of /var/lib/dpkg.
  --root=<directory>         Install on a different root directory.
  --instdir=<directory>      Change installation dir without changing admin dir.
  --path-exclude=<pattern>   Do not install paths which match a shell pattern.
  --path-include=<pattern>   Re-include a pattern after a previous exclusion.
  -O|--selected-only         Skip packages not selected for install/upgrade.
  -E|--skip-same-version     Skip packages whose same version is installed.
  -G|--refuse-downgrade      Skip packages with earlier version than installed.
  -B|--auto-deconfigure      Install even if it would break some other package.
  --[no-]triggers            Skip or force consequential trigger processing.
  --no-debsig                Do not try to verify package signatures.
  --no-act|--dry-run|--simulate
                             Just say what we would do - don't do it.
  -D|--debug=<octal>         Enable debugging (see -Dhelp or --debug=help).
  --status-fd <n>            Send status change updates to file descriptor <n>.
  --log=<filename>           Log status changes and actions to <filename>.
  --ignore-depends=<package>,...
                             Ignore dependencies involving <package>.
  --force-...                Override problems (see --force-help).
  --no-force-...|--refuse-...
                             Stop when problems encountered.
  --abort-after <n>          Abort after encountering <n> errors.

Comparison operators for --compare-versions are:
  lt le eq ne ge gt       (treat empty version as earlier than any version);
  lt-nl le-nl ge-nl gt-nl (treat empty version as later than any version);
  < << <= = >= >> >       (only for compatibility with control file syntax).

Use `dselect' or `aptitude' for user-friendly package management.
bash#
bash# apt-cache --help
apt 0.8.3ubuntu7 for amd64 compiled on Oct  5 2010 14:14:01
Usage: apt-cache [options] command
       apt-cache [options] add file1 [file2 ...]
       apt-cache [options] showpkg pkg1 [pkg2 ...]
       apt-cache [options] showsrc pkg1 [pkg2 ...]

apt-cache is a low-level tool used to manipulate APT's binary
cache files, and query information from them

Commands:
   add - Add a package file to the source cache
   gencaches - Build both the package and source cache
   showpkg - Show some general information for a single package
   showsrc - Show source records
   stats - Show some basic statistics
   dump - Show the entire file in a terse form
   dumpavail - Print an available file to stdout
   unmet - Show unmet dependencies
   search - Search the package list for a regex pattern
   show - Show a readable record for the package
   showauto - Display a list of automatically installed packages
   depends - Show raw dependency information for a package
   rdepends - Show reverse dependency information for a package
   pkgnames - List the names of all packages in the system
   dotty - Generate package graphs for GraphViz
   xvcg - Generate package graphs for xvcg
   policy - Show policy settings

Options:
  -h   This help text.
  -p=? The package cache.
  -s=? The source cache.
  -q   Disable progress indicator.
  -i   Show only important deps for the unmet command.
  -c=? Read this configuration file
  -o=? Set an arbitrary configuration option, eg -o dir::cache=/tmp
See the apt-cache(8) and apt.conf(5) manual pages for more information.
bash#

Installing the Amazon EC2 Command Line Tools to launch persistent instances

December 27th, 2010

This article is a jump start guide for anyone wanting to use Amazon EC2, from the basic concepts and terminology to the more advanced (and poorly documented) ways of managing your instances using the command line tool that give you access to the more powerful configuration options the GUI lacks.

1/ Introduction

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) allows you to create and destroy computers on the fly with the simple wave of a magic wand.

For example if you need a computer for just a few hours in order to perform calculations or test a specific software on a platform you don’t have access to right away, you don’t need to buy a whole machine, you launch an instance of a computer, and you will pay a small fee per hour (ranging from a few cents per hour for the least powerful one to a couple of dollars for the most expensive ones).

So for us mortals instance = computer.

Here are a few applications EC2 can be useful for:
- having access to a lot of CPU power for a limited amount of time (like renting a supercomputer and pay only for the few hours you use it, and it will be cheap as in a couple of dollars)
- testing software on different configuration (does your newly written software run on all flavors of Linux? and on Windows? and on that latest Linux kernel? and on that old Linux kernel?)
- testing software or protocols that require lots of nodes, like for instance routing protocols, as the creation of computers can be automated (through the command line, not the GUI)

The least powerful instance is called Micro and priced at $0.02 per hour while the most powerful one is called Quadruple Extra Large of the Cluster GPU Instances costs $2.10 per hour.

Amazon provides an easy to use Graphical User Interface (GUI) to create and destroy instances, called the AWS Management Console.

Basically creating an instance is equivalent to going to your favorite computer store and ordering a computer, specifying the parts you want.

Meaning everything is configurable from:
- the hardware: you can basically order from a small 32-bit computer with one virtual CPU and 613MB of RAM to a big 64-bit computer with 32 CPU and 1690GB of RAM (yes 1.6TB of RAM)
- the OS: you can install Windows, or any kind of Linux distribution (Ubuntu, Cent OS, Fedora, Debian,…). The OS you install is bundled into a package (an image) called AMI.
- the software: firewall (SSH access), any software the OS support.

For a complete list of available configurations are pricing, see the main EC2 page.

2/ Terminology and example use

Here is a little terminology:
- Launching an instance: means creating a virtual computer with the specifications you provide (Linux or Windows, Ubuntu or Fedora or others, firewall configuration and access using key pairs); it’s like going to a shop and buying a brand new computer.
- Terminating an instance: means destroying it, Terminator-like: it’s like smashing it with a hydraulic press, or running a big rig over it, or dipping it in molten steel, meaning the data you put on that computer are gone. Forever.
- Stopping an instance: means pausing it, like shutting down your computer for the night. No data is lost and while stopped the instance doesn’t cost you anything. Only running instances are billed by the hour.
- Starting an instance: means awaking the computer from sleep in the morning, and resuming what you were doing when you stopped it, with all the data it had. When the instance is started, you are being billed per hour for its usage.
- AMI: the image of the OS you are installing. You can see it as the Microsoft CD you use to install Windows on your computer.

So a basic life cycle is:
1/ Chose an instance (hardware, OS)
2/ Launch it (and start being billed for it)
3/ Log onto it (most likely using SSH on Linux or Remote Desktop in Windows)
4/ Install what you want on it like a regular computer and do whatever you want
5/ Stop the instance when you don’t need it right now (but will need it later) so you’re not being charged for the time the instance is started
6/ Start the instance when you wake up and need to use it
7/ Terminate the instance when you will no longer use it anymore (after probably having backed up all your data you needed to backup)

3/ Advanced configuration with the Command Line Tools

Instances are nice, but the main drawback is that you lose all your data if you terminate it.

By data we basically mean all that’s on the hard drive of the instance, from the root folder to your home directories.

No big deal because you just need not to terminate it?
Well if the instance has a problem out of your control, you lose your data. It’s not uncommon to see your nice instance marked as degraded.

Amazon provides 2 types of storage:
- Instance store: the data live with the instance (terminate the instance and you delete your data)
- EBS store: the data lives independently from the instances.

That’s why when you create an instance for example with latest Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat, you can chose your AMI to come with the “root store” to be either “instance” or “EBS”.

So you basically always want EBS to have persistence right?

Yes, but for astonishing reasons beyond comprehension, the EBS store actually have persistence disabled by default!

By digging a little bit in the EC2 documentation, you will find the confirmation that EBS has persistence disabled by default, along with how to enable persistence on a EBS volume:

By default, the root device volume for an AMI backed by Amazon EBS is deleted when the instance terminates.
You can change that default behavior when you launch the instance. In this section, we show you how to set the DeleteOnTermination flag to false in the instance’s block device mapping at launch time.
You can’t currently do this in the AWS Management Console; you must use the command line tools. You can verify the change in the console, however.

Ouch, we can’t do that using the GUI, and need to use those mysterious command line tools (a nice hyperlink to those would have been nice in the doc, hey, Amazon).

Then you start browsing the forum and realize lots of people are asking questions about installing those tools, with few answers.

Fortunately we did the chewing for you.

The command line tools (aka Amazon EC2 API Tools) are available here.

And you need to install them on a Linux computer. Preferably one outside of Amazon just in case by using the command line you blindly delete your own instance that was running those tools.

command line install: http://www.smartfrog.org/wiki/display/sf/Getting+Started+with+EC2

We will install the latest official Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat) Server 64-bit

If you want other version of Ubuntu, check them out in the Ubuntu EC2 Starter Guide.

1/ Launch an Instance use this AMI: ami-ca1f4f8f, then in “Instance Type” select Micro (t1.micro, 613MB)

Copy the address of the server (ex: ec2-51-28-5-237.us-west-1.compute.amazonaws.com) and log onto it using SSH and your key pair.

2/ Download the tools and unzip them:

bash# wget http://s3.amazonaws.com/ec2-downloads/ec2-api-tools.zip
bash# unzip ec2-api-tools.zip
bash# cd ec2-api-tools-1.3-62308/
bash# ls
bin  lib  license.txt  notice.txt  THIRDPARTYLICENSE.TXT
bash# cd bin/
bash#

3/ Try to run a basic command line tool

bash# ./ec2-describe-images ami-ca1f4f8f
./bin/ec2-describe-images: line 9: EC2_HOME: EC2_HOME is not set

We need to set the environment variables correctly:

bash# export EC2_HOME=/home/ubuntu/ec2-api-tools-1.3-62308/
bash# ./ec2-api-tools-1.3-62308/bin/ec2-version
/home/ubuntu/ec2-api-tools-1.3-62308//bin/ec2-cmd: line 17: JAVA_HOME: JAVA_HOME is not set

Ouch, the tools are using Java, let’s install it on the machine:

bash# sudo apt-get install openjdk-6-jre
bash# export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk/

Let’s try it again:

bash# ./ec2-api-tools-1.3-62308/bin/ec2-version
1.3-62308 2010-11-15
bash#

Yes! The command tool works. At least this was a local command that doesn’t connect remotely to retrieve information about your EC2 servers.

Now trying a remote command still fails:

bash# ec2-describe-keypairs
Required option '-K, --private-key KEY' missing (-h for usage)
bash#

In order to use the command line tools we need to authenticate to the Amazon management system, otherwise the command tools don’t have any way to guess for which EC2 account you are issuing the commands to.
And worse if there was no authentication, anybody could mess with your servers.

This is where a lot of people get confused because they will use the private key they use to log using SSH: this is not the keys we want.

That’s where we need to have a X.509 certificate and use the keys associated with it.

To generate a X.509 the certificate:

From the AWS Management Console go to Account (top left) then “Security Credentials” and in “Access Credentials” select the “X.509 Certificates” tab and click on “Create a new Certificate”.

You have successfully created a new X.509 Certificate.

Please download your Private Key file now. You must download your Private Key file (pk-), by clicking the link below before you navigate away from this page. AWS does not store your private key information. You will not be able to download the Private Key file at any other time. If you do not download the Private Key file now, you will have to create a new certificate and private key.

IMPORTANT: You should store your Private Key file in a secure location. If you lose your Private Key file you will need to create a new certificate to use with your account. AWS does not store Private Key Information.

Your Private Key is secret, and should be known only by you. You should never include your Private Key information in a requests to AWS, except encrypted as a signature. You should also never e-mail your Private Key file to anyone. It is important to keep your Private Key confidential to protect your account.

Please download your certificate file. You can download your certificate file now using the link below, or at your convenience from the Security Credentials page.

We need to add the private key of the X.509 certificate…

bash# export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=~/.ssh/cert_pk-KZG6HODRXZM7NJEZQ5TO5RXTNBPEZAAB.pem
bash# ec2-describe-keypairs
Required option '-C, --cert CERT' missing (-h for usage)
bash#

… and the public key as well:

bash# export EC2_CERT=~/.ssh/cert-KZG6HODRXZM7NJEZQ5TO5RXTNBPEZAAB.pem

If you used the wrong private key (using the SSH one instead of the X.509 CERTIFICATE) you would get this:

bash# export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=~/.ssh/ssh-private-key.pem <---- NO NO NO!!! do not use the private key used for SSH access, but the Private key of the CERTIFICATE!!!
bash# ec2-describe-keypairs
Client.MalformedSOAPSignature: Invalid SOAP Signature. Failed to check signature with X.509 cert
bash#

So just make sure you use the correct private key from the X.509 certificate, not your SSH private key.

Now all is setup we run the remote command:

bash# ec2-describe-keypairs
bash#

… and nothing happens, nothing is returned, not even an error message.

This is because by default the command line tools use a region that may not host your servers: us-east-1

Add the region where your servers are in the command line and all is fine:

bash# ec2-describe-keypairs --region us-west-1
KEYPAIR ssh1 93:7e:d6:69:97:dc:2c:77:9b:e7:df:d7:fa:5f:1d:1f:dc:f9:9d:35
KEYPAIR ssh2 95:c4:55:d4:65:d4:76:38:ce:e2:9e:47:1a:1b:68:ac:21:79:37:1c
KEYPAIR ssh3 87:a2:f1:51:37:f6:32:ee:33:d4:48:74:41:97:76:99:87:41:ae:f5
bash#

Watch out not to add the a/b/c in the region. For servers actually in us-west-1b, do not use
–region us-west-1b
but only
–region us-west-1
otherwise you will have the same problem

To make it easier, add you default region to the shell variable:

bash# export EC2_URL=https://ec2.us-west-1.amazonaws.com

Now we can finally issue commands without using repetitive command line arguments! setup is all done!:

bash# ec2-describe-instances
RESERVATION     r-3b4a969f      782870751849    Web Server
INSTANCE        i-9bd576bd      ami-f61141b3    ec2-180-72-4-113.us-west-1.compute.amazonaws.com        ip-10-162-235-206.us-west-1.compute.internal    running ssh2  0               m1.small        2010-07-28T11:15:02+0000        us-west-1b      aki-3c114179                    monitoring-disabled     180.72.4.113    10.132.217.116    ebs                                      paravirtual     xen
BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-7d9bfc16    2010-07-28T06:28:04.000Z
TAG     instance        i-9bd576bd      Name    ws00-small
RESERVATION     r-c8fd739c      782870751849    Web Server
INSTANCE        i-7be8523e      ami-ca1f4f8f    ec2-51-18-5-237.us-west-1.compute.amazonaws.com ip-10-170-15-199.us-west-1.compute.internal     running ssh3  0         t1.micro 2010-12-30T01:25:33+0000        us-west-1c      aki-9ba0f1de                    monitoring-disabled     51.18.5.237     10.170.25.122                   ebs               paravirtual      xen
BLOCKDEVICE     /dev/sda1       vol-d8cf42b3    2010-12-30T01:25:54.000Z
TAG     instance        i-7be8523e      Name    dev00-micro
bash#

Now we can finally launch instances with the deleteOnTermination flag set to false:

bash# ec2-run-instances ami-f61141b3 -b dev/sda1=::false
Client.InvalidBlockDeviceMapping: Invalid device name dev/sda1
bash#

and the documentation is incorrect: it’s missing a slash at the beginning of the block device:

bash# ec2-run-instances ami-f61141b3 -b /dev/sda1=::false -v
Setting User-Agent to [ec2-api-tools 1.3-62308]
------------------------------[ REQUEST ]-------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------[ RESPONSE ]------------------------------
RESERVATIONr-e461e9a0782870751849default
INSTANCEi-0ce98d48ami-f61141b3pending0m1.small2011-01-04T01:00:11+0000us-west-1caki-3c114179monitoring-disabledebsparavirtualxen
REQUEST ID5073b725-6f6f-40ec-b3e8-2dbe7e2d0b2d
bash#

We successfully created an instance from the command line with EBS persistence after instance termination.

Here is a more advanced command to start a new instance of type micro and create an extra volume of 20 Gigs:

bash# ec2-run-instances ami-ca1f4f8f -n 1 -t t1.micro -z us-west-1b -b /dev/sdb=:20:false -g 'Web Server' -k 'my_key_pay'

where:
-n 1 means launch only one instance
-t t1.micro is the type of instance (from micro to extra large)
-z us-west-1b specify the exact zone you want the server to run in. It’s important if you bought a reserved instance as they must match the exact same zone.
-b /dev/sdb=:20:false means create an extra volume (not the root partition as it would be sda, here it’s sdb) of 20 gigabytes and false means don’t delete it when the instance terminates
-g ‘Web Server’ is the access group (firewall)
-k ‘my_key_pay’ is your key pair used to SSH into the box

Once launched, you still need to create a partition on this newly created volume /dev/sdb and mount it manually where you want.

To create a partition, use fdisk.
We will create an ext4 partition using the whole 20 gigs:

bash# fdisk -l /dev/sdb

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/sdb doesn't contain a valid partition table
bash#
bash# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0xf725c011.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): l

 0  Empty           24  NEC DOS         81  Minix / old Lin bf  Solaris
 1  FAT12           39  Plan 9          82  Linux swap / So c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 2  XENIX root      3c  PartitionMagic  83  Linux           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 3  XENIX usr       40  Venix 80286     84  OS/2 hidden C:  c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 4  FAT16 <32M      41  PPC PReP Boot   85  Linux extended  c7  Syrinx
 5  Extended        42  SFS             86  NTFS volume set da  Non-FS data
 6  FAT16           4d  QNX4.x          87  NTFS volume set db  CP/M / CTOS / .
 7  HPFS/NTFS       4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 88  Linux plaintext de  Dell Utility
 8  AIX             4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 8e  Linux LVM       df  BootIt
 9  AIX bootable    50  OnTrack DM      93  Amoeba          e1  DOS access
 a  OS/2 Boot Manag 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 94  Amoeba BBT      e3  DOS R/O
 b  W95 FAT32       52  CP/M            9f  BSD/OS          e4  SpeedStor
 c  W95 FAT32 (LBA) 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a0  IBM Thinkpad hi eb  BeOS fs
 e  W95 FAT16 (LBA) 54  OnTrackDM6      a5  FreeBSD         ee  GPT
 f  W95 Ext'd (LBA) 55  EZ-Drive        a6  OpenBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/
10  OPUS            56  Golden Bow      a7  NeXTSTEP        f0  Linux/PA-RISC b
11  Hidden FAT12    5c  Priam Edisk     a8  Darwin UFS      f1  SpeedStor
12  Compaq diagnost 61  SpeedStor       a9  NetBSD          f4  SpeedStor
14  Hidden FAT16 <3 63  GNU HURD or Sys ab  Darwin boot     f2  DOS secondary
16  Hidden FAT16    64  Novell Netware  af  HFS / HFS+      fb  VMware VMFS
17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 65  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fc  VMware VMKCORE
18  AST SmartSleep  70  DiskSecure Mult b8  BSDI swap       fd  Linux raid auto
1b  Hidden W95 FAT3 75  PC/IX           bb  Boot Wizard hid fe  LANstep
1c  Hidden W95 FAT3 80  Old Minix       be  Solaris boot    ff  BBT
1e  Hidden W95 FAT1

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf725c011

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-2610, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2610, default 2610):
Using default value 2610

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf725c011

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        2610    20964793+  83  Linux

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
bash#

The partition is created, let’s double check that:

bash# fdisk -l /dev/sdb

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xf725c011

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        2610    20964793+  83  Linux
bash#

Now let’s mount it:

bash# ls /mnt/
bash# mkdir /mnt/data
bash# mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/data/
mount: you must specify the filesystem type
bash#
bash# mount -t ext4 /dev/sdb1 /mnt/data/
mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/sdb1,
       missing codepage or helper program, or other error
       In some cases useful info is found in syslog - try
       dmesg | tail  or so
bash#

Oops we still need to format it to the ext4 filesystem:

bash# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1310720 inodes, 5241198 blocks
262059 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
160 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000

Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 32 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
bash#

Now we can mount it:

bash# mount -t ext4 /dev/sdb1 /mnt/data/
bash#
bash# mount
/dev/sda1 on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
none on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
fusectl on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw)
none on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw)
none on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw)
none on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=0620)
none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
none on /var/run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
none on /var/lock type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
/dev/sdb1 on /mnt/data type ext4 (rw)
bash#
bash# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1              15G  665M   14G   5% /
none                  290M  116K  290M   1% /dev
none                  297M     0  297M   0% /dev/shm
none                  297M   48K  297M   1% /var/run
none                  297M     0  297M   0% /var/lock
/dev/sdb1              20G  172M   19G   1% /mnt/data
bash#

There it is, our 20G persistent partition is mounted on /mnt/data/ and whatever data we put on it, it will not be destroyed when the instance terminates.

The list of all the ec2 commands (running any command with the –help flag will give you more info):

bash# ls ec2-api-tools-1.3-62308/bin/
ec2-activate-license
ec2actlic
ec2addcgw
ec2adddopt
ec2-add-group
ec2addgrp
ec2addkey
ec2-add-keypair
ec2addpgrp
ec2addsds
ec2addsnap
ec2addsubnet
ec2addtag
ec2addvgw
ec2addvol
ec2addvpc
ec2addvpn
ec2allocaddr
ec2-allocate-address
ec2assocaddr
ec2assocdopt
ec2-associate-address
ec2-associate-dhcp-options
ec2-attach-volume
ec2-attach-vpn-gateway
ec2attvgw
ec2attvol
ec2auth
ec2-authorize
ec2bundle
ec2-bundle-instance
ec2-cancel-bundle-task
ec2-cancel-conversion-task
ec2-cancel-spot-instance-requests
ec2cbun
ec2cct
ec2cim
ec2-cmd
ec2-confirm-product-instance
ec2cpi
ec2-create-customer-gateway
ec2-create-dhcp-options
ec2-create-image
ec2-create-placement-group
ec2-create-snapshot
ec2-create-spot-datafeed-subscription
ec2-create-subnet
ec2-create-tags
ec2-create-volume
ec2-create-vpc
ec2-create-vpn-connection
ec2-create-vpn-gateway
ec2csir
ec2daddr
ec2datt
ec2daz
ec2dbun
ec2dcgw
ec2dct
ec2ddi
ec2ddopt
ec2-deactivate-license
ec2deactlic
ec2delcgw
ec2deldopt
ec2-delete-customer-gateway
ec2-delete-dhcp-options
ec2-delete-disk-image
ec2-delete-group
ec2-delete-keypair
ec2-delete-placement-group
ec2-delete-snapshot
ec2-delete-spot-datafeed-subscription
ec2-delete-subnet
ec2-delete-tags
ec2-delete-volume
ec2-delete-vpc
ec2-delete-vpn-connection
ec2-delete-vpn-gateway
ec2delgrp
ec2delkey
ec2delpgrp
ec2delsds
ec2delsnap
ec2delsubnet
ec2deltag
ec2delvgw
ec2delvol
ec2delvpc
ec2delvpn
ec2dereg
ec2-deregister
ec2-describe-addresses
ec2-describe-availability-zones
ec2-describe-bundle-tasks
ec2-describe-conversion-tasks
ec2-describe-customer-gateways
ec2-describe-dhcp-options
ec2-describe-group
ec2-describe-image-attribute
ec2-describe-images
ec2-describe-instance-attribute
ec2-describe-instances
ec2-describe-keypairs
ec2-describe-licenses
ec2-describe-placement-groups
ec2-describe-regions
ec2-describe-reserved-instances
ec2-describe-reserved-instances-offerings
ec2-describe-snapshot-attribute
ec2-describe-snapshots
ec2-describe-spot-datafeed-subscription
ec2-describe-spot-instance-requests
ec2-describe-spot-price-history
ec2-describe-subnets
ec2-describe-tags
ec2-describe-volumes
ec2-describe-vpcs
ec2-describe-vpn-connections
ec2-describe-vpn-gateways
ec2-detach-volume
ec2-detach-vpn-gateway
ec2detvgw
ec2detvol
ec2dgrp
ec2diatt
ec2dim
ec2dimatt
ec2din
ec2dinatt
ec2disaddr
ec2-disassociate-address
ec2dkey
ec2dlic
ec2dpgrp
ec2dre
ec2dri
ec2drio
ec2dsds
ec2dsir
ec2dsnap
ec2dsnapatt
ec2dsph
ec2dsubnet
ec2dtag
ec2dvgw
ec2dvol
ec2dvpc
ec2dvpn
ec2-fingerprint-key
ec2fp
ec2gcons
ec2-get-console-output
ec2-get-password
ec2gpass
ec2ii
ec2ikey
ec2-import-instance
ec2-import-keypair
ec2-import-volume
ec2iv
ec2kill
ec2matt
ec2miatt
ec2-migrate-image
ec2mim
ec2mimatt
ec2min
ec2minatt
ec2-modify-image-attribute
ec2-modify-instance-attribute
ec2-modify-snapshot-attribute
ec2-monitor-instances
ec2msnapatt
ec2prio
ec2-purchase-reserved-instances-offering
ec2ratt
ec2reboot
ec2-reboot-instances
ec2reg
ec2-register
ec2reladdr
ec2-release-address
ec2-request-spot-instances
ec2-reset-image-attribute
ec2-reset-instance-attribute
ec2-reset-snapshot-attribute
ec2revoke
ec2-revoke
ec2riatt
ec2rimatt
ec2rinatt
ec2rsi
ec2rsnapatt
ec2run
ec2-run-instances
ec2start
ec2-start-instances
ec2stop
ec2-stop-instances
ec2tag
ec2-terminate-instances
ec2udi
ec2umin
ec2-unmonitor-instances
ec2-upload-disk-image
ec2ver
ec2-version
bash#

The API Command Line Tools Reference describes further those commands.

Here are a few useful commands:

bash# ec2-describe-reserved-instances-offerings
OFFERING 248e7b75-fecf-4a63-98d6-d08254494579 us-west-1b c1.medium 3y 700.0 0.145 Windows
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-8643-4ea8-b00d-81b4b7c9bead us-west-1a c1.medium 3y 1084.0 0.093 SUSE Linux
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-14e3-465b-bcc3-211a78af6941 us-west-1a c1.medium 3y 700.0 0.08 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 60dcfab3-fb68-48ec-a3bb-89260f5db9bb us-west-1a c1.medium 3y 700.0 0.145 Windows
OFFERING d586503b-889e-4183-b679-aefdc496ba5e us-west-1c c1.medium 3y 1084.0 0.093 SUSE Linux
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-0ca5-49ce-864b-1a9327940194 us-west-1c c1.medium 3y 700.0 0.08 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-69ef-4454-822d-af84a439f655 us-west-1b c1.medium 3y 700.0 0.08 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-25b4-4165-9b5e-07360c24772b us-west-1b c1.medium 3y 1084.0 0.093 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 248e7b75-b500-4227-aca8-4ef0f5cfc905 us-west-1c c1.medium 3y 700.0 0.145 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-5644-4800-b494-1d3471812e2d us-west-1b c1.medium 1y 455.0 0.145 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-bdf5-421e-a4fd-0b212032c1da us-west-1a c1.medium 1y 455.0 0.08 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 60dcfab3-284a-40d6-a025-c06f143031e4 us-west-1a c1.medium 1y 647.0 0.093 SUSE Linux
OFFERING d586503b-52b6-4b99-9cc4-afe0af70b4e3 us-west-1a c1.medium 1y 455.0 0.145 Windows
OFFERING 649fd0c8-5c3e-41c1-8f4c-9c725e0d98dc us-west-1c c1.medium 1y 647.0 0.093 SUSE Linux
OFFERING d586503b-3294-4fde-b463-9c2f2822e6b7 us-west-1c c1.medium 1y 455.0 0.08 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING c48ab04c-2d4c-4e95-aeb2-ab307d27b4fd us-west-1b c1.medium 1y 455.0 0.08 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-19db-4879-8342-42742b3b92b0 us-west-1b c1.medium 1y 647.0 0.093 SUSE Linux
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-afa6-4a50-a375-85a793e2c023 us-west-1c c1.medium 1y 455.0 0.145 Windows
OFFERING 60dcfab3-1121-4969-b62c-cdfecabc9f23 us-west-1a c1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.58 Windows
OFFERING 60dcfab3-afef-40be-85e3-c1f44510a02a us-west-1a c1.xlarge 3y 3184.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING ceb6a579-aad2-430f-b8c3-358f0f8f8e4c us-west-1a c1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 4b2293b4-e481-4254-9534-1921e8ac3972 us-west-1b c1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.58 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-8b63-4914-aed5-115b3a8e7025 us-west-1c c1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-2586-4e53-8f01-29e6dd5e546d us-west-1c c1.xlarge 3y 3184.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 248e7b75-a3c7-46b7-95a0-13ac073370d4 us-west-1b c1.xlarge 3y 3184.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 649fd0c8-57fb-4b6b-8d76-db4ffedda413 us-west-1b c1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 248e7b75-9098-455d-8b23-561f6b74d536 us-west-1c c1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.58 Windows
OFFERING 649fd0c8-a1f1-4237-9050-db8a08eb8573 us-west-1a c1.xlarge 1y 2012.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING c48ab04c-a2ef-44dd-8ec8-01ed7810ae98 us-west-1a c1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.58 Windows
OFFERING c48ab04c-ca54-4ed2-8fcb-5952f9e4b566 us-west-1a c1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 649fd0c8-e61d-4a26-b793-506813fbb7f6 us-west-1b c1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.58 Windows
OFFERING 649fd0c8-f67b-46fd-ba42-85eb642b498e us-west-1c c1.xlarge 1y 2012.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING d586503b-12b9-463a-90c3-e23b6e93c459 us-west-1c c1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-a4ef-4120-8f4a-0e5a21063e46 us-west-1b c1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING c48ab04c-a7f3-41b0-9336-a00217247748 us-west-1b c1.xlarge 1y 2012.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-763c-4709-b293-f892ef1bcadc us-west-1c c1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.58 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-d6ab-4d09-b130-c2ac1b4010b2 us-west-1a m1.large 3y 1400.0 0.24 Windows
OFFERING 649fd0c8-712c-4b33-ba23-1d9b0c9b6252 us-west-1a m1.large 3y 1400.0 0.16 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-92a8-4952-a932-8dfb18d2665b us-west-1a m1.large 3y 1784.0 0.173 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 248e7b75-0884-42f4-9ab4-4edd3b48f9d5 us-west-1c m1.large 3y 1784.0 0.173 SUSE Linux
OFFERING ceb6a579-32b9-4ec2-893c-f4553623a734 us-west-1c m1.large 3y 1400.0 0.24 Windows
OFFERING d586503b-7196-46bf-bc0c-9c756b4e78c5 us-west-1c m1.large 3y 1400.0 0.16 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 438012d3-aa27-40bb-9bdf-9ec1cfc08970 us-west-1b m1.large 3y 1400.0 0.24 Windows
OFFERING 60dcfab3-2842-43cb-a33b-881ece819f03 us-west-1b m1.large 3y 1784.0 0.173 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 649fd0c8-c280-4097-b320-101350751a74 us-west-1b m1.large 3y 1400.0 0.16 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 438012d3-ead2-41d0-8b7b-2652a1e0beb4 us-west-1a m1.large 1y 1102.0 0.173 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-0f80-4a40-90de-a9f3c0267c4b us-west-1a m1.large 1y 910.0 0.16 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-90d0-401f-ae70-931945c1071d us-west-1a m1.large 1y 910.0 0.24 Windows
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-578b-43f5-b7c4-ae9c0589f46b us-west-1c m1.large 1y 910.0 0.16 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 438012d3-1251-406e-8598-59b24faa1542 us-west-1c m1.large 1y 910.0 0.24 Windows
OFFERING d586503b-64b3-460c-a33e-558c122b5786 us-west-1c m1.large 1y 1102.0 0.173 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 248e7b75-c4be-4fdf-8536-e2a06c5458e2 us-west-1b m1.large 1y 1102.0 0.173 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-cbc1-444b-a80e-098e16c64acc us-west-1b m1.large 1y 910.0 0.24 Windows
OFFERING 649fd0c8-8f20-448a-a76c-c4395823ad9b us-west-1b m1.large 1y 910.0 0.16 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-eee9-492b-a608-6584b5f029f4 us-west-1a m1.small 3y 350.0 0.06 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-de4d-497a-850f-07044ed0433d us-west-1c m1.small 3y 350.0 0.04 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-2261-4e7a-9e7e-92265de0ab1d us-west-1c m1.small 3y 542.0 0.053 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-4150-481e-9737-db1c93e3d5cf us-west-1a m1.small 3y 542.0 0.053 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 649fd0c8-f478-4b2b-87d3-d2e77da3a2dc us-west-1a m1.small 3y 350.0 0.04 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 248e7b75-fb18-4ec9-9e60-e03295c769e2 us-west-1c m1.small 3y 350.0 0.06 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-55f4-4c33-a656-bfbabc9d5aa4 us-west-1b m1.small 3y 542.0 0.053 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-c0a1-414e-9639-8e59ad7955f1 us-west-1b m1.small 3y 350.0 0.04 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 4b2293b4-ce9d-4412-8171-a67ffda12482 us-west-1b m1.small 3y 350.0 0.06 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-4d05-440b-908b-39e7b8752e8c us-west-1a m1.small 1y 227.5 0.06 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-def5-468b-ae97-63886afe7a09 us-west-1c m1.small 1y 227.5 0.04 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING c48ab04c-9a74-47c7-bcee-e025def86d4a us-west-1c m1.small 1y 323.5 0.053 SUSE Linux
OFFERING c48ab04c-446f-416d-b7e1-75db17b1354c us-west-1a m1.small 1y 227.5 0.04 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-ffc8-4535-a135-da556ae5fdce us-west-1a m1.small 1y 323.5 0.053 SUSE Linux
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-6fdc-43d6-bc05-84939f24d9e7 us-west-1c m1.small 1y 227.5 0.06 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-9fdb-4fce-bc9e-73375e4ec640 us-west-1b m1.small 1y 227.5 0.06 Windows
OFFERING ceb6a579-d22c-499b-9d6f-f713613dc823 us-west-1b m1.small 1y 323.5 0.053 SUSE Linux
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-79b4-4217-8c93-ebf1d633dd6e us-west-1b m1.small 1y 227.5 0.04 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 4b2293b4-811c-4337-9908-b0ea68174a03 us-west-1a m1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.48 Windows
OFFERING d586503b-9a7e-4d02-afef-51137be47dba us-west-1c m1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-4e15-499a-9c0b-8d948dd23803 us-west-1c m1.xlarge 3y 3184.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 438012d3-c84a-4a4f-a89f-a32f8aea17cb us-west-1a m1.xlarge 3y 3184.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-5e2c-487e-a3c9-5f06465c2e28 us-west-1a m1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-44df-4be3-8f2a-0a87e6aaecf7 us-west-1c m1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.48 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-0b70-4048-9b9b-2a057d60cdf1 us-west-1b m1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.48 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-dfe9-493e-8df7-ab52c2a2a258 us-west-1b m1.xlarge 3y 3184.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING c48ab04c-c9a3-4a4c-a53a-a99dfb679d95 us-west-1b m1.xlarge 3y 2800.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-0801-4cee-8fea-27349790d202 us-west-1a m1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.48 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-426e-4776-9a30-b95fae8dd43e us-west-1c m1.xlarge 1y 2012.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING d586503b-e9aa-477a-ad35-375814077e83 us-west-1c m1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 649fd0c8-1eb6-42e2-aafd-efccab7508fa us-west-1a m1.xlarge 1y 2012.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING d586503b-f42e-41b2-ba2b-136afd87fb7d us-west-1a m1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-2496-4972-9684-6a46eabc988d us-west-1c m1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.48 Windows
OFFERING 248e7b75-3920-47b7-88c4-40ab6be507c5 us-west-1b m1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.32 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 248e7b75-6a75-4cb3-bf24-e13746027c67 us-west-1b m1.xlarge 1y 2012.0 0.333 SUSE Linux
OFFERING c48ab04c-5b56-4c62-80aa-ee61b1fba523 us-west-1b m1.xlarge 1y 1820.0 0.48 Windows
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-94d3-4109-a064-44f5de4951ef us-west-1b m2.2xlarge 3y 4000.0 0.64 Windows
OFFERING 248e7b75-5d78-4d92-b033-8f822562012b us-west-1a m2.2xlarge 3y 4384.0 0.493 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-f7d8-4615-a9bb-99e55c2ed87a us-west-1a m2.2xlarge 3y 4000.0 0.48 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 60dcfab3-a02c-4f7d-b66f-90ae8c4b22c3 us-west-1c m2.2xlarge 3y 4384.0 0.493 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 649fd0c8-9009-40da-8f66-c66287ecc63e us-west-1c m2.2xlarge 3y 4000.0 0.64 Windows
OFFERING ceb6a579-06cb-48b2-a1ce-76b116cc825d us-west-1c m2.2xlarge 3y 4000.0 0.48 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-ede4-4e66-96a4-87ec21480583 us-west-1b m2.2xlarge 3y 4384.0 0.493 SUSE Linux
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-6bf7-4a0f-a888-ffc8729d6258 us-west-1b m2.2xlarge 3y 4000.0 0.48 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 4b2293b4-372b-4825-b443-7e184067b64f us-west-1a m2.2xlarge 3y 4000.0 0.64 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-656f-4273-b13e-2e67e2e8aecb us-west-1b m2.2xlarge 1y 2650.0 0.64 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-60a5-43b4-b144-e87c50aa7aef us-west-1a m2.2xlarge 1y 2650.0 0.48 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 60dcfab3-f685-45d5-8f48-6ea60a84db51 us-west-1a m2.2xlarge 1y 2842.0 0.493 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 248e7b75-af17-458a-a655-9a13b091ef7f us-west-1c m2.2xlarge 1y 2650.0 0.48 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 60dcfab3-6589-452d-8466-93eeb1fb6c5e us-west-1c m2.2xlarge 1y 2650.0 0.64 Windows
OFFERING d586503b-ca0a-4e30-a136-69497c3e5afc us-west-1c m2.2xlarge 1y 2842.0 0.493 SUSE Linux
OFFERING ceb6a579-3191-41a9-bc3b-2134fed5d477 us-west-1b m2.2xlarge 1y 2842.0 0.493 SUSE Linux
OFFERING ceb6a579-3f21-4a5d-8db5-f0058ca0b787 us-west-1b m2.2xlarge 1y 2650.0 0.48 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 4b2293b4-efda-4c19-906f-e95b51b68c8d us-west-1a m2.2xlarge 1y 2650.0 0.64 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-5c1d-41a3-847c-2f7e5595c71d us-west-1a m2.4xlarge 3y 8384.0 0.973 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 438012d3-66ad-4b4c-8a05-561d7252c80f us-west-1a m2.4xlarge 3y 8000.0 0.96 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 60dcfab3-4d52-455d-87ab-022830f2a88e us-west-1a m2.4xlarge 3y 8000.0 1.28 Windows
OFFERING 248e7b75-59d8-4f86-9f0c-6e3197c1d4b0 us-west-1b m2.4xlarge 3y 8000.0 0.96 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 4b2293b4-a42a-47d6-b85a-5cfd04597605 us-west-1b m2.4xlarge 3y 8384.0 0.973 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 60dcfab3-6264-4875-9311-6d0d99686117 us-west-1b m2.4xlarge 3y 8000.0 1.28 Windows
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-1da6-4c14-97eb-d1e1b92be61a us-west-1c m2.4xlarge 3y 8000.0 0.96 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING c48ab04c-d1f5-49df-8973-e2cd4942a0ac us-west-1c m2.4xlarge 3y 8000.0 1.28 Windows
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-af5f-4ae2-9908-415519474fe2 us-west-1c m2.4xlarge 3y 8384.0 0.973 SUSE Linux
OFFERING ceb6a579-746b-4a81-9382-78f184c49299 us-west-1a m2.4xlarge 1y 5300.0 1.28 Windows
OFFERING d586503b-d5ed-43ec-8f42-ae650afc07de us-west-1a m2.4xlarge 1y 5300.0 0.96 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-2dd2-4354-bbd2-6f889dafe3a8 us-west-1a m2.4xlarge 1y 5492.0 0.973 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 438012d3-a41e-4027-a69e-e59dc7496c0d us-west-1b m2.4xlarge 1y 5300.0 0.96 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 649fd0c8-82e6-43fe-9c27-dcb2352030f5 us-west-1b m2.4xlarge 1y 5300.0 1.28 Windows
OFFERING 649fd0c8-a6dd-49a4-bd37-2ce39ddc83eb us-west-1b m2.4xlarge 1y 5492.0 0.973 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-c3db-4734-9f0e-d54b84c17c82 us-west-1c m2.4xlarge 1y 5300.0 0.96 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING ceb6a579-3cfe-4394-acbf-d91a3e2aeab8 us-west-1c m2.4xlarge 1y 5300.0 1.28 Windows
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-9f70-4697-a29d-2ad0c4473536 us-west-1c m2.4xlarge 1y 5492.0 0.973 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-53d0-4cd4-a3ba-22e7749ba1ed us-west-1a m2.xlarge 3y 2000.0 0.24 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING c48ab04c-4e4d-4d96-9fb4-bb2a75fff490 us-west-1a m2.xlarge 3y 2384.0 0.253 SUSE Linux
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-1686-41ef-bd5d-ad6b5b4aa8cd us-west-1a m2.xlarge 3y 2000.0 0.32 Windows
OFFERING d586503b-072b-40a5-a5ab-8ed92c639453 us-west-1b m2.xlarge 3y 2000.0 0.24 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-7541-4b2f-af5f-bdf42fc616d7 us-west-1b m2.xlarge 3y 2384.0 0.253 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 649fd0c8-eb8e-413a-ac2d-d0ced3e5e5cc us-west-1c m2.xlarge 3y 2000.0 0.32 Windows
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-3f14-448c-8003-851fb14477b0 us-west-1b m2.xlarge 3y 2000.0 0.32 Windows
OFFERING 649fd0c8-c95d-4cda-af98-4003da41df5e us-west-1c m2.xlarge 3y 2000.0 0.24 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-7da1-478f-8bbd-356d87650c8e us-west-1c m2.xlarge 3y 2384.0 0.253 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 248e7b75-4a86-4116-a9bc-fa00be5644cd us-west-1a m2.xlarge 1y 1517.0 0.253 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-4391-4962-9a70-4c039ed0f9ed us-west-1a m2.xlarge 1y 1325.0 0.32 Windows
OFFERING c48ab04c-892f-4dd3-862e-1a965902a5c4 us-west-1a m2.xlarge 1y 1325.0 0.24 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 3a98bf7d-8dac-424e-ae4e-1fcd8162c2ef us-west-1b m2.xlarge 1y 1517.0 0.253 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 60dcfab3-2692-42e0-8268-e093fb454f0e us-west-1b m2.xlarge 1y 1325.0 0.24 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 438012d3-394d-4643-b630-594504d28105 us-west-1c m2.xlarge 1y 1325.0 0.32 Windows
OFFERING 438012d3-febe-48a2-85a3-a3b83cf024d0 us-west-1b m2.xlarge 1y 1325.0 0.32 Windows
OFFERING d586503b-8d49-4f59-9248-8e9b38438a43 us-west-1c m2.xlarge 1y 1325.0 0.24 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-6d09-4950-ba23-704dea7f307c us-west-1c m2.xlarge 1y 1517.0 0.253 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 438012d3-dd1c-4cb9-b3c7-5b2649068f97 us-west-1a t1.micro 3y 82.0 0.016 Windows
OFFERING 60dcfab3-4ad8-4471-ad3f-e144eba6b86d us-west-1a t1.micro 3y 82.0 0.01 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING d586503b-9515-42e8-b735-692c1ed45553 us-west-1a t1.micro 3y 130.0 0.016 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-7796-4a96-9bbc-77615d11560a us-west-1b t1.micro 3y 82.0 0.016 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-2879-4536-9f5e-d2f141499e30 us-west-1c t1.micro 3y 130.0 0.016 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 60dcfab3-f8db-44d4-87d7-ece0c0ccccd2 us-west-1c t1.micro 3y 82.0 0.01 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 438012d3-4941-4053-8d06-f4fbfbcc97b1 us-west-1b t1.micro 3y 130.0 0.016 SUSE Linux
OFFERING c48ab04c-e86d-4202-aa1a-ff58e5cf28e5 us-west-1b t1.micro 3y 82.0 0.01 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 248e7b75-3da5-4224-9c35-bfd7b1c63e96 us-west-1c t1.micro 3y 82.0 0.016 Windows
OFFERING 649fd0c8-4060-461b-b235-f8c4d67aa033 us-west-1a t1.micro 1y 54.0 0.01 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-4257-465b-b866-adf9e0076616 us-west-1a t1.micro 1y 54.0 0.016 Windows
OFFERING e5a2ff3b-946e-4a22-8874-86033249acca us-west-1a t1.micro 1y 78.0 0.016 SUSE Linux
OFFERING 4b2293b4-6e45-4bbd-9490-578eaef63404 us-west-1b t1.micro 1y 54.0 0.016 Windows
OFFERING 4b2293b4-6c39-4224-900c-2fecf00e8b26 us-west-1c t1.micro 1y 78.0 0.016 SUSE Linux
OFFERING d586503b-798b-4d2a-9650-aa1151f00640 us-west-1c t1.micro 1y 54.0 0.01 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 4b2293b4-290e-471b-b88b-b42f342da361 us-west-1b t1.micro 1y 78.0 0.016 SUSE Linux
OFFERING c48ab04c-3be6-4794-ab81-5fb2109c4e28 us-west-1b t1.micro 1y 54.0 0.01 Linux/UNIX
OFFERING 438012d3-f048-4d43-bb9b-7b443a6aa001 us-west-1c t1.micro 1y 54.0 0.016 Windows
bash#

bash# ec2-describe-reserved-instances
RESERVEDINSTANCES 92cbaca2-e3b7-37ab-aa5b-c7c7e230edeb us-west-1c t1.micro Linux/UNIX 1y 54.0 0.01 1 2010-01-04T01:14:56+0000 active

Unleash the power of Graphic Cards computation in the cloud: Amazon EC2 announcing Cluster GPU instances

November 15th, 2010

Just fresh from Amazon, that’s gonna be a lot of fun!

It’s CUDA in the cloud, nice.

We are excited to announce the immediate availability of Cluster GPU Instances for Amazon EC2, a new instance type designed to deliver the power of GPU processing in the cloud. GPUs are increasingly being used to accelerate the performance of many general purpose computing problems. However, for many organizations, GPU processing has been out of reach due to the unique infrastructural challenges and high cost of the technology. Amazon Cluster GPU Instances remove this barrier by providing developers and businesses immediate access to the highly tuned compute performance of GPUs with no upfront investment or long-term commitment.

Amazon Cluster GPU Instances provide 22 GB of memory, 33.5 EC2 Compute Units, and utilize the Amazon EC2 Cluster network, which provides high throughput and low latency for High Performance Computing (HPC) and data intensive applications. Each GPU instance features two NVIDIA Tesla® M2050 GPUs, delivering peak performance of more than one trillion double-precision FLOPS. Many workloads can be greatly accelerated by taking advantage of the parallel processing power of hundreds of cores in the new GPU instances. Many industries including oil and gas exploration, graphics rendering and engineering design are using GPU processors to improve the performance of their critical applications.

Amazon Cluster GPU Instances extend the options for running HPC workloads in the AWS cloud. Cluster Compute Instances, launched earlier this year, provide the ability to create clusters of instances connected by a low latency, high throughput network. Cluster GPU Instances give customers with HPC workloads an additional option to further customize their high performance clusters in the cloud. For those customers who have applications that can benefit from the parallel computing power of GPUs, Amazon Cluster GPU Instances can often lead to even further efficiency gains over what can be achieved with traditional processors. By leveraging both instance types, HPC customers can tailor their compute cluster to best meet the performance needs of their workloads. For more information on HPC capabilities provided by Amazon EC2, visit aws.amazon.com/ec2/hpc-applications.

At $2.10 per hour (and $5630 with a one-year contract or $8650 for 3 years), it’s the most expensive instance you can get, and of course the beefiest one.

Operating this server for a full year would cost you $18,396 without contract, or $12,112 ($5,630 up front plus $6,482 of usage) with a one year contract.

Here is the description of the instance:

Instances of this family provide general-purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) with proportionally high CPU and increased network performance for applications benefitting from highly parallelized processing, including HPC, rendering and media processing applications. While Cluster Compute Instances provide the ability to create clusters of instances connected by a low latency, high throughput network, Cluster GPU Instances provide an additional option for applications that can benefit from the efficiency gains of the parallel computing power of GPUs over what can be achieved with traditional processors. Learn more about use of this instance type for HPC applications.

The Cluster GPU instance family currently contains a single instance type, the Cluster GPU Quadruple Extra Large with the following specifications:

22 GB of memory
33.5 EC2 Compute Units (2 x Intel Xeon X5570, quad-core “Nehalem” architecture)
2 x NVIDIA Tesla “Fermi” M2050 GPUs
1690 GB of instance storage
64-bit platform
I/O Performance: Very High (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
API name: cg1.4xlarge

Note: One EC2 Compute Unit (ECU) provides the equivalent CPU capacity of a 1.0-1.2 GHz 2007 Opteron or 2007 Xeon processor.

The Amazon EC2 Cluster Compute and Cluster GPU instance types are specifically designed to combine high compute performance with high performance network capability to meet the needs of HPC applications. Unique to Cluster Compute and Cluster GPU instances is the ability to group them into clusters of instances for use with HPC applications. This is particularly valuable for those applications that rely on protocols like Message Passing Interface (MPI) for tightly coupled inter-node communication.

Cluster Compute and Cluster GPU instances function just like other Amazon EC2 instances but also offer the following features for optimal performance with HPC applications:

When run as a cluster of instances, they provide low latency, full bisection 10 Gbps bandwidth between instances. Cluster sizes up through and above 128 instances are supported.
Cluster Compute and Cluster GPU instances include the specific processor architecture in their definition to allow developers to tune their applications by compiling applications for that specific processor architecture in order to achieve optimal performance.

This opens the doors to heavy video processing, 3D rendering, SETI-type parallel processing directly in the cloud.

Update 11/16: And people are already using it to crack passwords demonstrating how easy it has become to break SHA1.

Nifty Bash aliases for development using SVN

October 2nd, 2010

Edit the .bashrc file in your home directory (~/.bashrc) and add those lines

alias svns=’svn st’
alias svnv=’svnversion’
alias svnd=’svn diff|less’
alias grepr=’grep -rn –exclude=\*.svn\*’

USB Connectors Wasting 4 Million man-hours per year

August 20th, 2010

The lack of symmetry for USB connectors is wasting 4 Million man-hours per year.
And that is using conservative numbers.

The problem with asymmetric connectors

To the engineers and designers in charge of specifications for those connectors:
- Why do you need connectors to be asymmetric?
- Whatever your reason is, can’t you come up with a symmetric connector with some logic that would solve the problem?

1/ The computation

How do we get to 4 Million man-hours?

Jeff Ravencraft of Intel Corporation, Chairman and President of the USB Implementers Forum said “Over 6 Billion products are in the market, and over 4 Billion ship a year now.”
There’s even a commercial for USB claiming out loud those 6 Billion devices and it was back in June 2009. With 4 Billion new devices every year, we should actually be around 10 Billion now.

But let’s start with 6 Billions devices to be conservative, even though by now we should be around 10 Billion.

6,000,000,000 USB devices out there.
Let’s divide by 10, assuming only one device out of 10 is in use (the rest being obsolete devices rotting in boxes in your attic)
Let’s divide by 2, assuming we insert the wrong way only half the time (50% chance of doing so, not taking Murphy’s law into account)
Let’s multiply by 52, assuming we plug them only once a week on average
Let’s multiply by 1, assuming we waste one second plugging it back correctly
Let’s divide by 3600 seconds to have the result in hours

6B / 10 / 2 /3600 * 52 = 4.3 Million

What does 4 Million man-hours mean?

Let’s compare this number to numbers we can grasp.

At 40 hours per week, people work around 2,000 hours per year.

Thus 4M man-hours translates to:
- 2,000 years of work for a single man
- 20 years of work for a 100 employee company
- 5 complete weeks of work from all the Google employees (Google has roughly 20,000 employees)

4M man-hours is also $32 Million dollars at the California minimum wage of $8.

4M man-hours is also $100 Million dollars at the 2008 US median household income of $50,000, or $25 per hour.

These amazing numbers don’t take into account the amount of frustration generated by having to struggle with mating two simple pieces of hardware.
These man hours wasted have pain and anger written all over them, unlike the 5 Million hours wasted playing Pac-Man on Google (unless those ghosts make you angry).

Companies worrying about their employees wasting time playing online games at work and taking radical measures like banning certain websites like Facebook better off step up and demand smarter features from their computer manufacturer, whether it’s a mouse you never have to clean (we finally got that) or simple symmetric connectors.

And this is just for USB (and yes, even the latest USB 3.0 has asymmetric connectors).

Now there’s still Firewire, VGA, DVI, HDMI, RJ-45, RJ-11 phone jack, PATA, SATA, Power connectors, SD cards and all other card formats like CompactFlash and XD, … even your batteries!

Although we start to finally see some much needed evolution for the batteries with the recently announced Microsoft GangstaLoad InstaLoad technology.

Have you ever been frustrated wasting time mating two connectors?
How many times a day do you plug USB connectors?

Let’s refine those numbers and see what we have for all those others poorly designed connectors.

Maybe finally we’ll start seeing symmetric connectors, like the good old Cinch connectors or even my earphone’s Jack!

UPDATE: The solution could be very simple as Engadget reports UltraTek provides a solution to that problem with a simple connector.

Android development: the lack of integration of the SDK into Eclipse

July 17th, 2010

For those of you in a hurry, the bottom line of this article is that if you want to develop on Andoid, do not install just any Eclipse IDE (and most likely not the latest one).
For Android SDK Revision 8 use Eclipse 3.5 Galileo – do not use the latest Eclipse 3.6 Helios.

Eclipse and the power of integrating an SDK to an IDE: why not for Android?

The Android SDK is based on Java and its preferred IDE is Eclipse.

Eclipse is a powerful and flexible IDE not limited to Java, providing neat integrations with several popular languages like PHP or ActionScript.

You can see this integration power in action when developing in ActionScript:
Adobe provides a version of Eclipse coming with the whole Flex framework and libraries, so the only thing you need to do to get up to speed writing Flash or AIR applications is to download one single file that embeds everything you need, from the IDE to the SDK.

This is where Google didn’t do a good integration job with their Android SDK as they did not fully integrate it to Eclipse.

In the big picture you need to:
1/ Download and install a vanilla Eclipse package that has nothing to do with Android (and already there are different versions of Eclipse to choose from, disconcerting for a newbie)
2/ Install the Android SDK separately and struggle your way into your Eclipse interface to make the integration happen)

And because several versions of Eclipse are available, not all of them will work well with the SDK.

For instance the Android SDK Revision 8 works on Eclipse 3.5 (nicknamed Galileo) but a new version of eclipse came out after, Eclipse 3.6 (aka Helios) breaking things with the Android SDK.
Now you have to find your way in the archives of Eclipse to download a previous version (the download page will of course

Here is my journey into the Android world, and how I got repelled installing the latest Android SDK revision 8 and trying to make it work on the latest Eclipse IDE.

This lack of integration, even at your very first contact with Android, seems to mirror the major problems of the platform:
- too many heterogeneous devices
- too many Android versions
Meaning sometimes too much freedom kills your productivity.

It’s exactly the story of Buridan’s donkey who died of indecision for having to chose between eating hay or drinking water.
Here new developers have to make choices they shouldn’t have to make (and hopefully not die of hunger because of indecision ;-).
Google should release a well integrated IDE for new developers starting with Android.
And it would not prevent experienced developers to have the freedom they want.

To Google: why not use the power of Eclipse and neatly embed your whole SDK into Eclipse, and release a single package to install that would contain both the IDE and the SDK?

First Android contact and how to waste time just getting the tools working

To install Android you start from here: http://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html, providing this overview:

1/ Prepare your development computer and ensure it meets the system requirements. [meaning install Eclipse]
2/ Install the SDK starter package from the table above. (If you’re on Windows, download the installer for help with the initial setup.) [meaning install the actual Anroid SDK package]
3/ Install the ADT Plugin for Eclipse.
4/ Add Android platforms and other components to your SDK.

All these 4 steps could have been collapsed into a single one (download and install an Android specific version of Eclipse) had Google integrated the SDK to Eclipse.

In addition, we also need to make sure Java is properly installed,

1/ Install Java

As we’ll be developing in Java, you need the Java JDK and not the JRE only.

Here we’re using JDK 6 Update 21.

Sun/Oracle explain it as such:

What Java Do I Need?
You must have a copy of the JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your system to run Java applications and applets. To develop Java applications and applets, you need the JDK (Java Development Kit), which includes the JRE.

1/ Install Eclipse

Download the Eclipse Java EE package (for experts, compare the different Eclipse versions here), a Java-specific version of Eclispe as Android development is mainly Java.
Unzip the file (eclipse-jee-galileo-SR2-win32.zip) and move the resulting eclipse directory in Program Files (yes Eclipse doesn’t even have a proper Windows installer).

Be sure to download the version 3.5 (aka Galileo) of Eclipse and NOT 3.6 (Helios) or you will run into big troubles later and won’t be able to build and run the sample Hello World project in the emulator.

Android even caution users not to use the latest version of Eclipse (Galileo/3.6) in the SDK System Requirements sections:

Caution: There are known issues with the ADT plugin running with Eclipse 3.6. Please stay on 3.5 until further notice.

Any Java flavored version of Eclipse is fine. Android recommends “A Java or RCP version of Eclipse is recommended.”

Now launch C:\Program Files\eclipse\eclipse.exe to launch eclipse and check everything work fine.

I first had the following error:

Java was started but returned exit code=13
-Dosgi.requiredJavaVersion=1.5
-Xms40m
-Xms512m
-os win32
-ws win32
-arch x86
-name Eclipse

This was because I didn’t put the eclipse directory in C:\Program Files\ but instead it was in another directory somewhere else on the machine.

Some blogs suggest running eclipse with the -clean switch to solve that problem but it didn’t work. However simply moving it to C:\Program Files\ solved the problem.

So be sure to install Eclipse in “C:\Program Files\” (a problem we wouldn’t have if Eclipse had a Windows installer…)

2/ Install the Android SDK

Now install the SDK for Android.

We’re using android-sdk_r06-windows.zip.
Unzip it in C:\Program Files\android-sdk-windows and launch it (SDK Setup.exe)

This launches the “Android SDK and AVD Manager” which downloads the SDK tools, documentation, sample code, Google APIs and USB drivers.
It actually installs several versions of the tools.

Downloading SDK Platform Android 2.2, API 8, revision 2
Installing SDK Platform Android 2.2, API 8, revision 2
Installed SDK Platform Android 2.2, API 8, revision 2
Downloading Samples for SDK API 8, revision 1
Installing Samples for SDK API 8, revision 1
Installed Samples for SDK API 8, revision 1
Downloading Google APIs by Google Inc., Android API 8, revision 2
Installing Google APIs by Google Inc., Android API 8, revision 2
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Updated ADB to support the USB devices declared in the SDK add-ons.
‘adb kill-server’ succeeded.
ADB: * daemon not running. starting it now *
‘adb start-server’ succeeded.
ADB: * daemon started successfully *

3/ Install the ADT plugin for Eclipse

The ADT plugin for Eclipse integrates the Android SDK into Eclipse.

Eclipse 3.5 (Galileo) installation instructions:
1. Start Eclipse, then select Help > Install New Software.
2. In the Available Software dialog, click Add….
3. In the Add Site dialog that appears, enter a name for the remote site (for example, “Android Plugin”) in the “Name” field.
In the “Location” field, enter this URL: https://dl-ssl.google.com/android/eclipse/
Note: If you have trouble acquiring the plugin, you can try using “http” in the URL, instead of “https” (https is preferred for security reasons).
Click OK.
4. Back in the Available Software view, you should now see “Developer Tools” added to the list. Select the checkbox next to Developer Tools, which will automatically select the nested tools Android DDMS and Android Development Tools. Click Next.
5. In the resulting Install Details dialog, the Android DDMS (Android Dalvik Debug Monitor Service) and Android Development Tools features are listed. Click Next to read and accept the license agreement and install any dependencies, then click Finish.
6. Restart Eclipse.

4/ Configure the ADT Plugin

Once you’ve successfully downnloaded ADT as described above, the next step is to modify your ADT preferences in Eclipse to point to the Android SDK directory:

Select Window > Preferences… to open the Preferences panel (Mac OS X: Eclipse > Preferences).
Select Android from the left panel.
For the SDK Location in the main panel, click Browse… and locate your downloaded SDK directory.
Click Apply, then OK.

We’re now all ready for a Hello World sample app!

The Hello World app runs in the Android Emulator.
Before you can launch the emulator, you must create an Android Virtual Device (AVD).

An AVD defines the system image and device settings used by the emulator.

5/ Create an AVD

In Eclipse, choose Window > Android SDK and AVD Manager.
Select Virtual Devices in the left panel.
Click New.
The Create New AVD dialog appears.

Type the name of the AVD, such as “my_avd” (no space allowed in the name)
Choose a target. The target is the platform (this is the version of the Android SDK, such as 2.2 here) you want to run on the emulator.
You can ignore the rest of the fields for now.

Click Create AVD.

6/ Hello World Android Project

Now Create a New Android Project in Eclipse:

1.
From Eclipse, select File > New > Project.
If the ADT Plugin for Eclipse has been successfully installed, the resulting dialog should have a folder labeled “Android” which should contain “Android Project”.
After you create one or more Android projects, an entry for “Android XML File” will also be available.

2.
Select “Android Project” and click Next.

3.
Fill in the project details with the following values:
Project name: HelloAndroid
Application name: Hello, Android
Package name: com.example.helloandroid (or your own private namespace, for instance com.bottomlessinc.helloandoid)
Create Activity: HelloAndroid

Here is a description of each field:

Project Name
This is the Eclipse Project name — the name of the directory that will contain the project files.

Application Name
This is the human-readable title for your application — the name that will appear on the Android device.

Package Name
This is the package namespace (following the same rules as for packages in the Java programming language) that you want all your source code to reside under. This also sets the package name under which the stub Activity will be generated.
Your package name must be unique across all packages installed on the Android system; for this reason, it’s important to use a standard domain-style package for your applications. The example above uses the “com.example” namespace, which is a namespace reserved for example documentation — when you develop your own applications, you should use a namespace that’s appropriate to your organization or entity.

Create Activity
This is the name for the class stub that will be generated by the plugin. This will be a subclass of Android’s Activity class. An Activity is simply a class that can run and do work. It can create a UI if it chooses, but it doesn’t need to. As the checkbox suggests, this is optional, but an Activity is almost always used as the basis for an application.

Min SDK Version
This value specifies the minimum API Level required by your application. For more information, see Android API Levels.

Other fields:
The checkbox for “Use default location” allows you to change the location on disk where the project’s files will be generated and stored.
“Build Target” is the platform target that your application will be compiled against (this should be selected automatically, based on your Min SDK Version).

4. Select the target. None was selected by default so we selected Android 2.2

Click Finish.

I got this error:

Project ‘HelloAndroid’ is missing required source folder: ‘gen’ HelloAndroid
The project cannot be built until build path errors are resolved

Right click on the error, select “Quick Fix”. Click “Finish” in the Quick Fix popup that already has “Configure build path..” selected.
It pops up the “Properties for HelloAndroid” dialog in the tab “Order and Export”.
HelloAndroid/src and HelloAndroid/gen were already selected, but Android 2.2 was not.
Select it, click ok, and the error goes away.

Now open the code located in src/com.bottomlessinc.helloandroid/HelloAndroid.java it looks like this:

package com.bottomlessinc.helloandroid;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class HelloAndroid extends Activity {
    /** Called when the activity is first created. */
    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.main);
        TextView tv = new TextView(this);
        tv.setText("Hello, Android");
        setContentView(tv);
    }
}

The class is based on the Activity class.

An Activity is a single application entity that is used to perform actions.
An application may have many separate activities, but the user interacts with them one at a time.
The onCreate() method will be called by the Android system when your Activity starts — it is where you should perform all initialization and UI setup. An activity is not required to have a user interface, but usually will.

Then hit the run button.
This is where it crashes if you installed Eclipse 3.6 (Helios).

I got this error with Eclipse 3.6 Helios:

An internal error occurred during: “Compute launch button tooltip”.
org/eclipse/debug/internal/ui/stringsubstitution/SelectedResourceManager

and couldn’t get Eclipse to compile the project and launch the emulator.

So be sure in the previous steps you use the older version 3.5 of Eclipse, not 3.6.

What a waste of time that could have been avoided if Google packaged properly the Android SDK in its own Eclipse based package.

Now we have our basic Hello World application working, we can learn more about developing with Android.

7/ Some definitions to jump start you on the Android platform

adb shell (Android Debug Bridge) to access linux

Android uses SQLite DB like Firefox and iPhone

Android uses the WebKit library as browser engine, also used in Chrome, Safari and iPhone.

The DVM (Dalvik VM) is basically Google’s implementation of Java optimized for small devices.
It uses .dex files compiled at runtime from .class and .jar.
The Core java libs are different from Java SE (standard edition) and Java ME (Mobile ed.) but similar.

The Activity Manager records the sequence of screens in the app in the Application Stack.
The user can go back to the previous screens with the back button like in a browser.

Each UI screen is represented by an Activity class.
An app is one or more activities plus a Linux process that contains them.
Each Activity is responsible for saving its own state.

Here is the life cycle of an Android Activity:

Android Activity Life Cycle

onPause() is where the data should be saved.

Emulator swith to landscape: CTRL+F11 (or 7, or 9)

Intents: for instance the “send email” intent can be called, or you can register to that intent to replace the default email program.
Service: runs in the background like a daemon. Many services are already built in with lots of APIs to access them.
Content providers: used to share data between apps (ex: contacts)
Resources: graphics in res/drawable, XML UI in res/layout. Android creates a R class for all resources (ex: R.layout.main). Check the built in resources.
Common permissions (asked in the Android-Manifest.xml, granted at runtime depending on settings and user prompts): INTERNET, READ_CONTACTS, ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION

8/ Installing the Facebook SDK

The Facebook SDK is hosted on github.
Unfortunately Eclipse doesn’t have any integration with Git (shame shame shame).
As it just got integration with SVN in the latest release (shame shame shame), don’t expect well integrated Git support any time soon! (shame shame shame)

To work it around, use the equivalent of TortoiseSVN: ToirtoiseGit.

Unfortunately the installation is as painful as the Android one.

Before installing tortoisegit, you must install msysgit first, then tortoisegit.
“Please install msysgit 1.6.1 or above before install tortoisegit http://code.google.com/p/msysgit”
After installing, if you try directly to do a git clone (equivalent of a SVN checkout), you will see this error:

MSysGit have not installed Correctly or MSysGit Path setting error
Click Yes to open setting dialog to setup MSysGit Path

You need to edit the tortoiseGit settings, on the first page (General), point the MSysGit Path to your _bin_ directory of msysgit:
C:\Program Files\msysgit\bin

If you merely point it to C:\Program Files\msysgit, you will have this error when trying to clone again: “git have not installed” which is a known issue.

Right click in C:\Program Files\, “Git Clone…”, enter the url of the fb sdk (git://github.com/facebook/facebook-android-sdk.git) and the directory target (for instance C:\Program Files\android-facebook-sdk to be consistent with android-sdk-windows)

Unfortunately It all got messy and didn’t work, but this worked:
1/ install Git-1.7.0.2-preview20100309.exe (the Full installer for official Git 1.7.0.2)
2/ Check the option to include the Git GUI in the right click context of Explorer
3/ Right click/Git GUI here and enter the URL of the Facebook API: http://github.com/facebook/facebook-android-sdk.git

Well, what a pain.

Working with Android is unnecessarily painful, so please Google, get your developer tools to the level of those for the iPhone or Windows Mobile.

And please Eclipse, don’t wait years before integrating with Git.

Linux Screen cheat sheet: how to keep your terminal sessions connected no matter what

July 16th, 2010

Screen is a command line utility allowing you to launch shells that will never die (unless you explicitly ask for it of course).

The two most common use case are:

1/ Prevent losing work when the connection with the server is lost

For instance if you connect with SSH then start working in the terminal, if the connection with the server is lost, you could be in the middle of something important and information is lost.
If you’re editing a file not saved yet in vi, you’ll have to recover.

Instead, once connected on the server, start right away another bash shell, launching it using screen:

bash@localhost# ssh remotehost
bash@remotehost# screen -S myunbreakablesession bash

From here, all the commands you type are actually executed in the screen session you aptly named “myunbreakablesession”.

If the connection with the server is lost, ssh again to remotehost then “attach” to the screen session named “myunbreakablesession” again.

You “attach” (meaning you reconnect to it) to a screen using the “screen -r myunbreakablesession ” command.

In case you don’t remember how you called your screen session, you can list all the sessions with the “screen -ls” command as below:

bash@remotehost# screen -ls
There are screens on:
        23393.myunbreakablesession      (Attached)
1 Socket in /var/run/screen/S-root.
bash@remotehost# screen -r myunbreakablesession

2/ Continue exactly what you were doing when switching from one machine to another

Let’s say you work from two different places (workplace and home for instance) but want to seamlessly continue what you were doing from one place to the other.

You can use the ability to attach and detach to screen sessions for that purpose.

You can “detach” the screen (meaning you get out of it without closing it) by pressing CTRL-a then ‘d’ (maintain CTRL down the hit ‘a’ while CTRL still down, then release all, then hit ‘d’ only).

For instance from work you do:

bash@work# ssh remotehost
bash@remotehost# screen -S myunbreakablesession bash
bash@remotehost# scp big_database_backup.sql.gz root@otherhost:~/
<Detach the screen session here by pressing CTRL-a then d>
[detached]
bash@remotehost#

Then you move to another computer, at home for instance:

bash@home# ssh remotehost
bash@remotehost# screen -ls
There are screens on:
        23393.myunbreakablesession      (Attached)
1 Socket in /var/run/screen/S-root.
bash@remotehost# screen -r myunbreakablesession
<you can now check the status of the scp command>
bash@remotehost#

This is extremely useful when downloading huge files, or uploading big files like Sun core dumps to Sunsolve, or transferring big backups between servers like ZFS snapshots.

If the connection is lost to the terminal, the transfer is still alive running in the screen session.
Once you get home from work you can check on the status of the transfer by attaching to the session.

To summarize, here are the important commands to remember

# Create a screen session:
screen -S <name> <command>
# Detach from a screen session:
CTRL-a d
# List all screen sessions:
screen -ls
# Attach to a screen session:
screen -r <name>
# Create another session from an existing screen session:
CTRL-a c
# Switch back to the previous screen session:
CTRL-a CTRL-a
# Go to the next screen session (it will loop and show the first one when the end is reached):
CTRL-a n
# Go to the previous screen session (it will loop and show the last one when the beginning is reached):
CTRL-a p
# Attaching to a screen session that was not Detached (basically take over, kicking out the user currently attached):
screen -r -D <name>

More information can be found in this Linux Journal article.

How Facebook checks your account is not fake (and keeps legitimate users out)

May 13th, 2010

Facebook has been boasting not only the most users for a social networking site, but also the most “quality” users (ie less fake users).

How can Facebook achieve that?

First they’ve been actively purging fake accounts.
More recently they started testing your knowledge of your own friends.
Because everybody knows you know well all your friends on Facebook right?

This feature is disguised as a way to check that your account is not being accessed by an unauthorized person logging from a unrecognized computer.
It happens if you try accessing your account while traveling, and logging from a location you never logged from before.

Not only you will be asked for a Captcha, but Facebook will present you a set of 7 photos where your friends have been tagged, and you will have to recognize them.

You can only skip 2 questions so you better know your friends well, and be lucky enough to be shown photos with an actual face on it.

Especially when they start asking you questions on tagged pictures like those ones:

Try it yourself by logging from a friend’s computer or from a computer abroad and test your knowledge of your friends.
It’s fun, especially when you get yourself locked out of your own account and have to wait one hour to try it again.

Detailed flow

First you’re being asked to enter a Captcha:

Facebook login verification using photo tagging

Then you are tested on your knowledge of your friends’ pictures:

Facebook login verification using photo tagging

It reads:

In order to proceed, Facebook needs to verify that you are the owner of this account. To do this, please identify the people tagged in the following series of photos.
To pass, you cannot get any answers wrong. If you aren’t sure about a question, please skip it. You can only skip two questions.

If you fail, you get this:

Facebook login verification using photo tagging

Please come back in a little while
Your answers were not accurate enough.
For security reasons, you are only allowed to authenticate your identity once every hour. Please come back then to try again. Sorry for the inconvenience.

If you succeed after having failed previously, you will be shown the recent login attempts to review.

Facebook login verification using photo tagging

Please review recent activity on your Facebook account
Your account was recently accessed from a location we’re not familiar with. Please review the activity details below.
If anything looks unfamiliar, we’ll help you change your password (this will help prevent people in the future from accessing you account without permission).
Do you recognize the account activity listed above?

Note the funny wording about preventing people from the future to access your account. Ambiguous. What if I want my future self to access it?

Is it too much?

Although these extensive security measures really do their job of keeping unauthorized persons to access your Facebook account, aren’t they a bit too much?

Wouldn’t a more classical method combining a Captcha and an email with a link to confirm you identity be enough?
Here you have a Captcha, plus a series of 7 pictures with friends tagged.
You cannot make any mistake, you can only skip two questions.
It is overkill for user identification.
Hence the underlying reason behind this flow is more for fake user account determent than really protecting your account from unauthorized logins.

Maybe at some point the only way you will be able to add a friend on Facebook will be to go through 7 random pictures with and without your candidate friend on it and you would have to tell if he is in the picture or not.

This will certainly upset spammers using fake accounts using friends they know nothing about.
But it will also upset those real people having lots of friends because they are just over eager to add more.

We all have one of those friends, don’t we?
You know, those with more than 1,000 friends you always wondered how they know so many people (and they probably don’t).

I’m curious to know how well they would do at the photo tag test.

————————
UPDATE Sept. 09 2010:
It seems we were right as Facebook filed to patent social Captcha. See the patent application.
————————

Facebook rivaling Google by building its own Web Crawler powered by… You!

May 1st, 2010

Update April 14th 2012: Sergey Brin warns of the threat Facebook poses to the Internet and open web by building its inaccessible content. But is Facebook a threat for the Internet itself? Or just for Google?
——————–

With Facebook giving the publishers easy ways to mirror their external pages on Facebook, it means it is effectively building the most relevant search engine, the semantic search engine.

And it’s doing that using free labor: viewers of pages who “Like” or “Recommend” a page using the new Like button.

Here is an example of this search engine (using this very article), already available and directly integrated in Facebook, listing all the web pages external to Facebook that users “Liked” in the “Page” section of the results:

On the technical side, you can see Facebook’s crawler in the access log of your HTTP server.
It has the User Agent set to facebookexternalhit/*
Here is an example of Facebook pinging this very article in the access.log of the Apache server:

69.63.178.249 – - [05/May/2010:08:31:40 -0600] “GET /2010/05/facebook-rivaling-google-by-building-its-own-web-crawler-powered-by-you/ HTTP/1.1″ 200 18379 “-” “facebookexternalhit/1.0 (+http://www.facebook.com/externalhit_uatext.php)”

Complex Expensive Mathematical Proprietary Algorithms vs. You

What will the result be?

A search engine more powerful than Google as it will index only real pages that actual users like, and not fake pages.

Google and Bing and all serious search engines in the market must spend millions of dollars building complex automated Web Crawlers that keep surfing around the clock, retrieving pages, following links and crunch each page to extract relevant information based on keywords to index them.

So far, the ranking of your site depends on how this complex algorithm works and classify keywords, with inner workings so obscure and complex it gave birth to a totally new field of Internet technologies: Search Engine Optimization (aka SEO).

Facebook is moving the power from complex obscure and proprietary algorithms to the end users, the only persons who can really tell if a page is worth reading.
Not only Facebook can tell the page is worth indexing, but it can tell what its rank should be, just by looking at the number of people who shared the same page.

Every time you click on a “Like” button, you effectively tell Facebook: here is the address of a page I read and liked, and it’s worth sharing with others.

Facebook is actually building the first successful crowdsourced search engine, and it will be a powerful one with pages chosen by users, getting rid of all the fake websites out there like parked domains and parasite websites that are just exploiting the biggest weakness of search algorithms: they are not human.

Those parasite websites usually do their own web crawling and build pages (sometimes on the fly) using keyword stuffing to lure search engines into thinking their content is relevant in order to achieve higher ranking, then serve lots of ads on the pages to generate revenue from that traffic.
I personally move right away from those websites when I land on them, meaning I will never click a “Like” button if they had one because it’s too obvious they are just copy pasting content from somewhere else.

You can’t lure the human eye so easily and a smaller percentage of people who lands of the parasite pages will actually “Like” them, while a regular search engine would rank them high based on the keywords.

Not to mention the porn sites.
Who will “Like” or “Recommend” a porn webpage with the link being posted directly to their Facebook profile and broadcasted to all their friends in their News Feed?

The raise of Microsoft’s Bing (under the cover of Facebook)

In a way, the “Like” button is how Facebook added a Captcha to all websites so only content worth indexing is being saved for search.
Even more powerful than a Captcha on a webpage, it’s also a Captcha on your brain and morality as users will not reference questionable websites like porn.

Who will benefit from that?
Facebook of course, but also Microsoft’s own search engine, Bing, which so far has been struggling against Google even after Microsoft spent billions of dollars on it.
Don’t forget that Microsoft invested $240M in Facebook back in 2007 (see Facebook’s press release), and they could well be behind Facebook’s strategy to take over the web.

Bing is already omnipresent in Facebook search and it keeps growing.

Facebook Bing Search

At more than a billion clicks per day on the “Like” button, it’s happening really fast.

The consequences are as follow:
- Facebook is referencing a “cleaner” web: it will have an inventory of real pages with less parasite websites referenced and more general audience content
- Bing from Microsoft will benefit directly from this crowdsourced search engine.
- the SEO importance will diminish

Of course people will adapt:
- SEO guys will get on the Facebook bandwagon and their job will be to add a “Like” button to your site (and still charge you a lot for that)
- Parasite websites will have to make their content much nicer to the human eye to fool humans into thinking they have the original content. It probably means that a simple copy of the original content instead of keyword stuffing will do better than a pages belching lots of content gathered from multiples places.
- Google will be (certainly is already) restless and start spending billions to compete with the Microsoft+Facebook alliance.

But don’t forget Google also has its own social network: Orkut.

Could Google’s response rely on finally getting Orkut to take off?
I would start by renaming it to something I don’t have to Google every time for spelling and pronunciation…

While Google will not go away any time soon, the search engine wars is just starting and the key is to make is social.